Demystifying Stock Transfer: Intra and Inter-State Operations Under GST

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A business carries out a comprehensive range of activities, most of which involve a transaction. Stock transfer is one such activity. It involves transferring the inventory or goods from one place to another.

It sounds simple, right? However, there are two types of stock transfer: intra-state and inter-state stock transfer. Each one of these operations has different implications under GST.

If you do not understand the relation between GST and stock transfer, read this article below till the end. It will discuss in detail the complexities of stock transfer under GST.

Understanding GST and Its Implications on Stock Transfer

The Goods and Services Tax is an indirect government sales tax levied on the price of specific products and services. In many countries, it is designed as a unified system, merging central and state-level taxes into a single tax rate applicable throughout the country. GST is often referred to as Value-Added Tax (VAT) in some regions. It is collected by businesses or sellers and forwarded to the government.

Under the GST regime, stock transfers are treated as supplies. This means that when a company transfers goods from one state to another, it becomes liable to pay GST on the goods’ value. This shift in taxation has various implications for companies involved in interstate stock transfers.

  • Higher Compliance Costs

Companies engaged in stock transfers must adhere to GST regulations, necessitating the maintenance of detailed records for the goods transferred. Compliance involves accurate documentation. This increased administrative burden contributes to higher compliance costs for businesses.

  • Increased Tax Liability

GST on stock transfers results in an augmented tax liability for companies. The tax is calculated based on the value of the transferred goods, and companies must factor this liability into their financial planning.

  • Impact on Cash Flow

The requirement to pay GST on the value of stock transfers affects a company’s cash flow. Since the tax is an additional financial obligation, businesses must allocate timely payment resources. This impact on cash flow management can be significant.

  • Impact on Pricing

Companies need to consider the GST liability on stock transfers when determining product prices. The additional tax burden may influence pricing strategies as businesses aim to maintain profitability while remaining competitive.

Legal Framework for Stock Transfer in GST

The legal framework governing stock transfers under the GST in India is multifaceted and contingent upon specific circumstances. Understanding its key aspects is crucial for businesses engaged in interstate trade.

  • Taxability

Intra-state stock transfer between distinct persons under the same PAN within a state are exempt from GST. However, transfers between distinct persons with different PANs, interstate transfers, and free supplies (e.g., free samples) attract GST.

  • Valuation

If parties are related, the transaction value is acceptable only if not influenced by the relationship. Otherwise, valuation is based on similar goods or the cost of production.

  • Invoice

The issuance of an invoice or debit note specifying the value and GST liability is mandatory for taxable stock transfers.

  • E-way Bill

An E-way Bill is required if the value of transferred goods exceeds ₹50,000, irrespective of the distance of transfer.

This framework ensures clarity on taxability, valuation methods, and procedural requirements for stock transfers, offering businesses guidelines for compliance and smooth operations under the GST regime in India.

Process of Stock Transfer in GST

The stock transfer process in GST depends on several factors, such as the location of the transferring and receiving branches, their GST registration status, and the value of the goods. Here is a general outline of the process for different scenarios:

Intrastate Transfer (within the same state)

  • Not Taxable

If both branches have the same PAN and GST registration within the same state, the transfer is not considered a taxable supply and no GST liability arises. However, you still need to:

  • Maintain proper records of the transfer, including details of goods, quantity, and value.
  • Update your inventory records at both the sending and receiving branches.
  • Taxable Situations

If the branches have separate PAN registrations, even within the same state, the transfer becomes a taxable supply. You need to:

  • Issue a debit note from the transferring branch specifying the goods, quantity, value, and applicable GST rate.
  • Create a purchase invoice at the receiving branch with the same details as the debit note.
  • Pay the relevant GST liability.

Interstate Transfer (between different states)

All interstate stock transfers are considered taxable supplies under GST, regardless of the PAN registration status of the branches. You need to:

  • Issue a tax invoice from the transferring branch, specifying the goods, quantity, value, SGST, CGST, and IGST rates.
  • Create an E-way Bill for products worth more than ₹50,000.
  • File the relevant GST returns.

GST Calculations for Stock Transfer

Understanding how GST applies to stock transfers in India involves exploring various valuation scenarios. Let’s break down the process for intra and inter-state stock transfer in simpler terms.

Valuation Metrics for Stock Transfers

Some of the key metrics for the valuation of stock transfers are:

  • Open Market Value (OMV)

It involves paying full value without taxes. They are used when the recipient can claim a full Input Tax Credit (ITC).

  • Value of Similar Goods and Services

It is used when OMV is not available.

  • 90% of the Price Charged

It is applied at the supplier’s choice when goods are resold.

  • Cost + 10% or Residual Method

They are used when other methods are not applicable. If production cost is ₹30,000, the transferred goods’ value is ₹33,000.

Illustrative Scenarios:

Sr. No.  Particulars  Case  Valuation 
Finished Products Transfer  XYZ Ltd. moves goods from Mumbai to Kolkata depot. Open Market Value: ₹50,000. Subsequent sale: ₹52,000.  ₹50,000 (OMV) or ₹45,000 (90% of subsequent sale price) 
Semi-finished Products Transfer  XYZ Ltd. shifts products from Mumbai to Kolkata for further processing. Invoice value: ₹20,000.  ₹20,000 (Invoice value) 
Finished Products Transfer to Exempted Goods Unit  XYZ Ltd. sends goods to a WB unit making exempted goods. Open Market Value: ₹50,000.  ₹50,000 (Value of similar goods) 


In stock transfers, proper valuation is crucial. While OMV is straightforward, things get complex when alternative methods are needed. This approach ensures that GST is applied correctly, considering the nature and purpose of the stock transfer.

Common Issues and Resolutions in Stock Transfer Transactions

Common issues and resolutions in stock transfer transactions can vary depending on the participants involved, the type of transfer, and the regulations. However, some general issues and resolutions arise frequently:

  • Inaccurate or incomplete paperwork

Errors or missing information in transfer documents can delay the transfer or even render it invalid. So, carefully review all paperwork before submitting it for transfer.

  • Signature discrepancies

Mismatched or missing signatures on transfer documents can cause delays or rejection of the transfer. Thus, you must verify that all required signatures are present and match the authorized signatories listed on the relevant accounts.

  • Insufficient account balance

The transaction gets declined if the selling account does not have enough shares to fulfil the transfer request. Thus, you must verify the available balance in the selling account before initiating the transfer.

  • Fraudulent activity

Attempts to transfer shares illegally or without proper authorization can occur through forged documents, stolen identities, or other deceptive tactics. So, implement robust security measures for stock transfer processes, including verification of identification and reporting any suspected fraud to the authorities.

  • Transfer restrictions

Certain stocks may have transfer restrictions, such as holding periods, approval requirements, or trading limitations. Research and understand any transfer restrictions associated with the specific stock before initiating the transaction. Obtain necessary approvals or comply with holding periods as required.

  • Technical glitches

Errors or outages in electronic trading systems or transfer platforms can disrupt or delay stock transfers. Contact the broker or transfer agent responsible for the system if you encounter technical issues during the transfer process. Monitor updates and wait for the system to stabilize before reattempting the transfer.

  • Communication breakdowns

Lack of clear communication between parties involved in the transfer can lead to misunderstandings and delays. So, maintain clear and consistent communication with brokers, transfer agents, and other participants throughout the transfer process.

  • Delays due to regulatory requirements

Regulatory reviews or approvals may be required for certain types of stock transfers, leading to delays. Be aware of any potential regulatory delays and factor them into your timeline for the stock transfer. Moreover, provide all necessary information and documentation promptly to expedite the regulatory review process.

  • Lost or misplaced certificates

The transfer process can be significantly delayed or even halted if a physical stock certificate is lost or misplaced. Report the lost certificate to the issuer immediately and follow their procedures for replacement. 


Understanding how GST applies to stock transfers helps unravel the complexities of intra and inter-state stock transfer. While the open market value provides a straightforward approach, the availability of alternative methods ensures flexibility in various situations. Businesses involved in stock transfers should grasp the nuances of GST valuation, considering factors like the type of goods, relationships between entities, and the purpose of the transfer. This knowledge ensures compliance and empowers businesses to explore the GST framework effectively, promoting smooth operations.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the treatment of stock transfer in GST?

In the GST system, stock transfers are considered supplies and are therefore taxable. If a company moves goods from one state to another, it is obligated to pay GST on the assessed value of the transferred goods.

Q2. Is inter-state supply taxed under GST?

The Central Government imposes Integrated GST (IGST) on the interstate provision of goods and services within India. In cases where goods and services move from one state to another, the Central Government imposes IGST, and the revenue generated is subsequently allocated to the destination state.

Q3. Is an EWAY bill required for stock transfer?

An e-way bill is mandatory for transporting all goods except those exempted under specific notifications or rules. Additionally, the movement of handicraft goods or goods used for job work, under certain specified circumstances, requires an e-way bill, even if the consignment’s value is less than fifty thousand rupees.

Q4. Is GST charged on inter-branch transfers?

A distinctive aspect introduced by the Goods and Service Tax Act (GST Act) is the taxation of inter-branch transfers. This implies that when one branch transfers goods or provides services to another branch within the same company, GST is applicable on such transfers.

Q5. What type of GST is levied in intra-state supplies?

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) imposed by the Central Government on the supply of goods and/or services within a state is termed Central GST (CGST), while the tax levied by the individual states is referred to as State GST (SGST).

Q6. What is a stock transfer agreement?

According to section 7(1) of the IGST Act, the term “inter-state supply of goods” refers to the supply of goods during inter-state trade or commerce, indicating a situation where the supplier’s location and the place of supply are situated in two different States, two distinct Union Territories, or a combination of a State and Union Territory.

Q7. What is inter-state supply as per the IGST Act?

A stock purchase agreement, also known as a stock transfer agreement or share transfer agreement, is a legal document employed in the sale of stock between two shareholders of a target company or in an intercompany transfer between two affiliated entities.

Q8. Is stock transfer to be shown in Gstr 1?

In this scenario, where stock is transferred to the same PAN but a different GSTIN, the taxpayer must include these invoices in their GSTR-1 and settle the corresponding tax in GSTR-3B. Conversely, the recipient can avail of the Input Tax Credit for the tax amount paid on the transferred stock.

Q9. Can we claim ITC on stock transfer?

The inter-state stock transfer of raw materials will indeed attract GST, and the unit that purchased and dispatched the raw materials can claim an Input Tax Credit (ITC). However, the unit engaged in manufacturing and selling exempt finished goods won’t be eligible for ITC on the GST paid for the raw materials. This limitation on ITC availability is a characteristic of transactions involving the production of exempted goods.

Q10. What is an example of an inter-state transaction?

It is an interstate transaction, exemplified by a supplier delivering iron ore from Jharkhand to a consumer in West Bengal. The GST collected in this transaction is then divided between the Central Government and the West Bengal State Government, reflecting the principle of revenue distribution based on the state of consumption.

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Shivam Sharma
Shivam Sharma is a penultimate-year BBALLB (Honours) student passionate about crafting insightful content in the finance niche. He remains well-informed through continuous engagement with the latest news, ensuring that his content reflects the most current and relevant insights. Shivam Sharma's unique strength lies in his comprehensive understanding of both the legal and business facets of various topics. This dual expertise allows him to present well-researched content, making him a valuable contributor in the field of business and finance content creation.

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