Essential Commodities and Exempted Goods: Exceptions to E-waybill Requirements

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Published Date:  30-01-2024   Author:   aishwarya-s
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The implementation of Goods & Service Tax (GST) in India, effective from July 1, 2017, stands as a significant indirect tax reform, marking a pivotal moment since Independence. This major reform, achieved through a decade-long collaboration, discussions, and debates between the Central and State Governments on implementation methods, consolidated and replaced nearly all indirect taxes at both Central and State levels.

Under the previous indirect tax regime, the country faces widespread opportunities for potential tax evasion and several logistical complications too. The Central government imposed duties on manufacturing and service rendering, while state governments had the authority to impose taxes on intrastate sale of goods. The revenue generated was shared between the Centre and states, involving numerous checks and requiring transporters to carry various documents like permits and challans.

To streamline taxation and eliminate unnecessary complexities, the GST regime introduced the e-waybill  system. This technological solution aimed to simplify tax processes, making compliance more accessible. However, recognizing practicalities and daily necessities, the GST regime exempts essential commodities and certain goods from e-waybill  requirements.

Read on further to understand the specifics of essential commodities and exempted goods, which are exceptions under the e-waybill requirements.

Identification of Essential Commodities and Exempted Goods

Identification of essential commodities and exempted goods is a crucial aspect of taxation and trade regulations. In the context of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India, certain goods are considered essential or exempted from specific tax requirements, including the need for an e-waybill. 

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Essential commodities are goods that are considered crucial for the well-being of the general public, and their availability and pricing are regulated by the government to ensure affordability and accessibility. The government typically exercises control over the production, distribution, and pricing of essential commodities to prevent hoarding, black-marketing, and undue price hikes. The government maintains a list of essential commodities, which may include items like food grains, pulses, edible oils, medicines, and certain healthcare products.

Similarly, exempted goods are those for which the GST rate is set at 0%, meaning that no GST is levied on the sale or movement of these goods. Exempted goods may fall into various categories, including basic necessities, healthcare items, and specific agricultural products.

Here are some examples of essential commodities or goods which are exempted from e-waybill requirements. You can find the whole list in the Annexure [(See rule 138 (14)] to the e-way rules or refer to the official list of essential commodities. 

  • Water: All water except types such as mineral, aerated, and purified water.
  • Unbranded Atta/Maida/Besan: Basic food staples like unbranded flour varieties are considered essential for daily consumption.
  • Unpacked Food Grains: Essential food items such as rice, wheat, and other grains in their natural form are vital for sustenance.
  • Milk, Eggs, Curd, Lassi: Dairy products are fundamental sources of nutrition and are, therefore, classified as essential commodities.
  • Fresh Vegetables: Perishable items like fresh vegetables, essential for a balanced diet, fall into this category.
  • Contraceptives: Items related to family planning, including contraceptives, are recognized as essential for reproductive health and are exempted.
  • Animals: Various live animals such as live fish, fresh or chilled fish, prawn/shrimp seeds, and other goods related to animals. There are exceptions as well, such as purebred horses. 

Understanding the Rationale Behind E-waybill Exemptions for Specific Goods

The rationale behind e-waybill exemptions for specific goods lies in streamlining the logistics process and reducing the compliance burden for certain categories of products. Here are key points to understand the rationale:

  • Nature of Goods: E-waybill exemptions often consider the nature of goods being transported. Certain categories of goods, such as live animals, essential commodities, or specific agricultural products, may be exempt to simplify documentation requirements. GST-exempt goods are also exempt from e-waybill requirements, helping essential commodities maintain affordable prices for production, transport, and sale. 
  • Inherent Challenges: Live animals and perishable goods, for instance, present unique challenges in transportation. Exempting them from e-waybill requirements acknowledges the practical difficulties associated with documenting their movement while ensuring that essential controls and regulations are still maintained.
  • Facilitating Trade: Exemptions aim to facilitate the smooth movement of goods, particularly those crucial for daily consumption, agricultural activities, or other essential purposes. Through the exemption of certain goods, authorities aim to avoid unnecessary disruptions in the supply chain.
  • Compliance Simplification: The exemptions help in simplifying compliance for businesses involved in the transportation of specific goods. This is especially relevant for goods with lower values or those transported within short distances.
  • Risk Assessment: Regulatory bodies consider the risk associated with the transportation of different goods. Exempting certain categories may be based on a risk assessment that deems them less likely to be involved in tax evasion or illicit activities.
  • Industry Feedback: The decision to exempt certain goods may also be influenced by feedback from industries and businesses. Authorities may review and adjust exemptions based on practical feedback to ensure that the regulations align with the operational realities of businesses.

E-waybill exemptions for specific goods aim to strike a balance between regulatory control and the practicalities of transporting diverse categories of goods. This helps in fostering a more efficient and responsive logistics ecosystem.

Also Read: GSTIN and E-waybill: Ensuring Proper GST Registration

Implications of E-waybill Exemptions on Supply Chain Management

E-waybill exemptions have notable implications for supply chain management. Here’s a more focused perspective:

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  • Operational Streamlining: Exemptions simplify the documentation process, leading to more efficient supply chain operations. Businesses can navigate transportation processes with reduced administrative hurdles.
  • Cost-Efficiency: Exemptions result in cost savings as businesses can allocate fewer resources to compliance-related tasks. This financial advantage contributes to the overall cost-effectiveness of logistics.
  • Timely Deliveries: Upon eliminating certain regulatory requirements, exemptions help minimize delays in the transportation of goods. This is particularly crucial for industries with time-sensitive delivery requirements.
  • Strategic Compliance Focus: Exemptions allow businesses to concentrate compliance efforts on relevant transactions, ensuring adherence to regulations where necessary, rather than adopting a one-size-fits-all approach.
  • Industry Tailored Approaches: Some exemptions may be industry-specific, addressing the unique needs of particular sectors. This targeted approach ensures that regulations align with the practicalities of transporting goods in those industries.
  • Enhanced Customer Satisfaction: Streamlined logistics and reduced delays contribute to improved delivery timelines, ultimately enhancing customer satisfaction. A smoother supply chain process positively impacts overall customer service.


Ensuring Compliance with E-waybill Requirements for Non-exempted Goods

As explained, an e-waybill is an essential electronic document mandated under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime to validate the movement of goods.  Section 68 of the CGST Act and Rule 138 of the CGST Rules, 2017, mandate the generation of an e-waybill  for the movement of goods exceeding ₹50,000 by registered individuals under GST.

Certain circumstances necessitate e-waybill  generation, even for consignments below ₹50,000:

  • Interstate transfer of goods from a principal to a job worker in another state.
  • Interstate transfer of handicraft goods by an unregistered dealer under GST, initiated by an unregistered individual to a registered one.

To comply with this regulation, sellers or consignors must clearly understand the following:

  • e-waybill  Generation

Non-exempted goods require e-waybill registration and generation. Before transporting goods, the consignor/seller must upload consignment details on the common portal for e-waybill, connected with the GST portal, to generate an e-waybill. 

An e-waybill  typically includes details such as the consignor/seller’s name, consignee/recipient’s name, origin of the consignment, delivery address, transport route, and estimated time of delivery. It consists of Part A and Part B, to be filled by the taxpayer and the transporter respectively. 

  • Documentation for Transporters

Transporters must have the following documents as per GST e-waybill  rules:

  • Invoice, bill of supply, or delivery challan.
  • Physical copy or number of the e-waybill .

Officers can intercept vehicles to check e-waybills during interstate or intrastate movement. Physical verification may occur with commissioner approval if tax evasion is suspected. Once verified in a state, a vehicle is not rechecked unless there are concerns about tax evasion. This comprehensive compliance process ensures that e-waybills are generated and adhered to for the seamless and regulated movement of goods. 

Staying Informed About Changes in the List of Exempted Goods

To stay compliant with e-waybill exemption rules, businesses must regularly check for changes and updates. The exemption criteria, especially in intrastate movements, can vary between states and may be subject to modifications. It is crucial for businesses to monitor official notifications and announcements from the GST authorities at both the central and state levels.

Regularly checking the Goods and Services Tax E-waybill System website ( or the official GST portal, where updates and clarifications are often published, is a recommended practice. Additionally, businesses can subscribe to newsletters or notifications provided by relevant taxation authorities or industry experts. These updates may include changes in exemption thresholds, categories of exempted goods, or alterations in the e-waybill requirements for specific transactions.

Maintaining vigilance and promptly adapting to any modifications in the e-waybill exemption rules helps businesses ensure smooth and compliant transportation of goods while avoiding potential penalties for non-compliance.


In a nutshell, the regulations governing essential commodities and exempt goods from the e-waybill in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) framework showcase the ever-evolving and complex nature of taxation in India. The implementation of the e-waybill system has brought about notable changes in the transportation of goods, with exemptions serving as a forward looking and adaptable component in diverse transactions. 

Understanding the details related to these exemptions is crucial for businesses aiming to comply seamlessly with evolving tax requirements, facilitate efficient logistics, and contribute to the overarching objective of a robust and simplified indirect tax structure within the country.

Lastly, the contents of this article should not be interpreted as a legal opinion or representation of the author’s views. The information provided is intended solely for informational and educational purposes. Although care has been taken in preparing this article, there may be inadvertent mistakes and omissions. The author disclaims any liability for losses or damages of any nature resulting from inaccurate or incomplete information in this document or any actions taken based on it. It is recommended to seek expert or professional consultation.


Here are some frequently asked questions:

  • What is the primary function of an e-waybill?

The primary role of an e-waybill is to facilitate compliant and smooth goods movement by furnishing vital details about the consignment.

  • Are e-waybills obligatory for all goods?

Yes, unless exempted under specific regulations. Even the transportation of handicraft goods or those undergoing job-work in certain scenarios necessitates an e-waybill, irrespective of the consignment value.

  • Where can an e-waybill be generated?

E-waybills can be generated on the common portal:

  • What is the penalty for not generating Part B of the e-waybill?

The penalty for neglecting to generate Part B of the e-waybill is the higher of ₹10,000 or the total suspected tax evasion amount by the transporter or owner.

  • How is the validity period of an e-waybill determined?

The validity period is based on the estimated distance entered during generation. Regular vehicles have one day validity for every 200 km, while Over Dimensional Cargo vehicles have one day validity for every 20 km.

  • Which transactions require e-waybills?

E-waybills are mandatory for all transactions, whether within a state or interstate, involving unregistered persons, or for non-supply reasons. Refer to relevant notifications/rules for specifics.

  • Is an e-waybill necessary for goods transported within a 10-kilometer radius?

Goods transported within a state are exempt from e-waybill requirements if the distance is within 10 kilometers. However, the current limit has been extended to 50 kilometers.

  • What documents are required?

The person in charge must carry the invoice, bill of supply, delivery challan, or bill of entry, along with an electronic copy of the e-waybill.

  • What happens if the e-waybill validity expires?

If the validity expires, goods cannot be moved. The proper officer may intercept the goods, leading to potential confiscation, seizure, and penalties.

  • Are there penalties for not carrying necessary documents for exempted goods?

Yes, penalties under Section 122 of the CGST Act may apply if taxable goods, including exempted ones, are transported without the required documents.

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Aishwarya Lakshmi

Aishwarya Lakshmi is a Finance and SaaS Copywriter for 5+ years now, she has created SEO copies for B2B and B2C companies all around the globe. Aishwarya is a finance graduate and a university rank holder with exceptional academic excellence in finance core. Besides writing, Aishwarya, fosters her community Quillspire - a space for budding freelancers. In short, She maps contents to win pitches with words and concepts.

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