Valuation of Stock Transfers under Model GST Law

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GST is the common tax system that guides the Indian market. It applies to all services and goods sold and purchased. Under such a framework, the valuation of stocks for tax is based on the transaction or market value at the time of supply.

Valuing a stock is an attempt to assess the true worth of the company it is a part of. As it can function as a deciding factor in several business decisions, it is an important process. It involves multiple ways and can easily be susceptible to error because of subjectivity.

This blog is an attempt to uncomplicate the complexities present in the GST stock transfer valuation. A better understanding of the valuation methods under GST can promote better decision-making in business matters.

Understanding Model GST Law

When transferring stock under GST, the transaction value must be considered as the price paid for the supply. This represents the payment for the supply when the recipient and provider are unrelated. The GST Valuation Rules, 2017, offers comprehensive guidelines for figuring out the transaction value of goods. This can involve figuring out the payable or price paid for the goods that are adjusted for:

  • Any taxes or duties levied by the government
  • Any incidental expenses incurred by the recipient
  • Any incentives or discounts offered by the supplier to the recipient

The following are the Model GST Law stock transfer features:

  1. Dual Levy System

GST is a dual levy system, so the supply of services and goods is subject to separate taxes on CGST and SGST. Both the federal and state governments levy this.

  1. Four Taxes

GST has four primary tax rates: 0%, 5%, 12%, and 18%. A given commodity or service rate is determined by its categorization.

  1. Input Tax Credit (ITC)

ITC is one of the major components of GST. This enables companies to offset their GST liability on sales by claiming credit for the GST paid on purchase services.

  1. Exemptions

A few industries, including healthcare, education, and agriculture, are free from the Goods and Services Tax.

Factors Influencing Valuation of Stock Transfers

The GST Valuation Rules, 2017, provides detailed guidelines for determining the transaction value of services and goods. The recipient incurs incidental expenses, such as packing, freight, and insurance.

Any levies, taxes, or fees imposed by the government on the provision of goods or services other than the GST. The GST stock transfer valuation is determined by subsidies that are connected to the price of a supply supplied by the government or another public authority. Some factors that influence the valuation are:

  1. Open Market Value

OMV is the full value in monetary terms. This excludes the tax payable by a taxpayer for a transaction. If a taxpayer is eligible for a full ITC, they would consider the value declared in the invoice as the open market value.

  1. Cost of Production

Suppliers can use the total cost incurred in the production of manufactured goods as the taxable value. However, this method needs careful documentation and justification.

  1. Exemptions

Stock transfers like those between branches of the same entity within the same state or for further manufacturing might be exempt from GST. Knowing the exemptions helps avoid unnecessary tax assessments.

Also Read: What are the Rules for GST Valuation of Stock Transfers?

Methods of Valuation for Stock Transfers under Model GST Law

The Model GST Law provides several approaches to stock transfer valuation. Each has its advantages and disadvantages that vary based on the particular situation.

  1. Comparison Method

The value is determined using the comparison method of valuation. This adjusts the value reasonably by considering relevant factors, such as differences in the dates of supply, commercial or quantity levels, composition, quality, and design. The subject supply is compared to another supply, and the transaction values of supplies of identical nature, quality, kind, and reputation are evaluated.

  1. Computed Method

When the value cannot be determined by the comparison method, the computed value is used. This means that the value is determined by adding: 

  • The cost of production, manufacture, processing of goods or provision of services.
  • Charges for design or brand
  • An amount of profit and general expenses are usually reflected in the supply of the same class.
  1. Residual Method

In case valuation cannot be determined by other methods, the value is determined using reasonable means consistent with the principles and provisions under the Valuation Rules. One example of the residual method is a valuation based on per unit when the cost of manufacturing can not be decided in principle. The number of person-hours required to complete a job can be another example of such a valuation method.

Also Read: Understanding The Treatment Of Stock Transfer In GST: A Comprehensive Guide

Special Considerations in Stock Transfer Valuation under Model GST Law

A few special provisions are made for a smooth adaptation of the complex tax system into the world of stock transfer. These steps help ensure that the taxable value is fair and represents the actual worth of the transaction when dealing with specific situations.

  1. Discounts and exemptions

Discounts such as trade discounts and quantity discounts are common in business transactions. In the GST system, discounts mentioned in the invoice (pre-supply discounts) can be excluded when calculating the taxable value. Discounts given after the supply can also be excluded if two conditions are met:

  • The discount is agreed upon before the supply between the supplier and the recipient and is linked to the relevant invoices.
  • The recipient reverses the input tax credit related to the discounts.

When determining the taxable value, one can consider the discounts agreed upon before and after the supply, provided these conditions are satisfied.

  1. Mandatory inclusions

When calculating the taxable value for GST, certain additional amounts need to be added to the price. These include:

  • Taxes, fees, or charges imposed by laws other than the GST.
  • Expenses paid by the recipient on behalf of the supplier.
  • Incidental expenses like commission and packing costs incurred by the supplier.
  • Interest, late fees, or penalties for delayed payment.
  • Direct subsidies (excluding government subsidies).

By adding these amounts to the price, one arrives at the taxable value on which GST will be calculated.

  1. Supply between related parties

A transaction between people influenced by each other, like family members or companies in the same group, is considered related persons. Special rules are also in place to determine the taxable value for such transactions under GST. In such cases, a few specific rules are to be considered.

  • The value is derived using the market price, also known as open market value.
  • Value of supply of like kind and quality.
  • Value of supply based on cost

If none of the above methods are suitable, a reasonable value consistent with GST principles and regulations can be used.

Challenges and Issues in Stock Transfer Valuation under Model GST Law

The Model GST Law aims to simplify tax compliance. GST stock transfer valuation presents several challenges and issues that businesses need to be aware of:

  1. Uncertainty in transaction Value

The Model GST Law says that the value of goods and services for tax purposes is the ‘transaction value,’ which is the real price paid or payable for the supply. Lack of clear transaction price, subjectivity in valuation methods, open market value, and cost of production methods’ dependency on estimation and interpretation leave room for discrepancies and challenges in verification.

  1. Inter and Intra state transfer

Movement of goods between states to other branches or units involved no tax earlier. However, under the GST system, these movements and services between a company’s units would be taxable.

  1. Lack of valuation rules

The concern is the value on which GST would be payable, whether taxes are to be paid on transaction value or at cost plus ten per cent basis. Without detailed valuation rules, there seems to be no clarity.

  1. Keeping up with evolving rulings

Changing regulatory interpretations, court rulings, and inconsistent applications across jurisdictions can lead to uncertainty and compliance difficulties.

Compliance and Best Practices for Stock Transfer Valuation Under Model GST Law

An important point to keep in mind about GST stock transfer valuation is that the stock transfers may be subject to check by the GST authorities. Businesses should verify that they are in compliance with the applicable GST regulations and stock transfer rules. The best ways to make the most of the tax system and benefit from it are:

  1. Understand the valuation methods

A thorough grasp of the different methods outlined in the GST Law is encouraged. This will help in choosing the most applicable method for your transfer. Staying updated on exemptions and maintaining detailed records are also healthy compliance practices.

  1. Being punctual and accurate

Filing timely GST returns and accurately reporting the valuation is advisable. Besides, following proper invoice practices is also important.

  1. Fair pricing

Ensuring reasonable pricing for stock transfers between connected parties is important. Doing so helps avoid accusations of unfair valuation. It also increases the chance of potential adjustments by authorities.

  1. Explore technological advancements

The use of accounting software or GST compliance tools to automate tasks, such as record-keeping and return filing, ensures accuracy. It also minimizes the chances of human error.


The results of stock transfer valuation guidelines under GST will differ according to the kind of methods adopted by different organizations. Valuation of stock transfers under the Model of GST can pose difficulties for organizations as they aim to adapt. Being informed of different methods and requirements is essential. Keep in mind the exemptions of the system help save on unnecessary taxes. Thus enabling compliance with tax regulations and helping avoid penalties.

Utilizing online resources like the GST portal for calculations can ease out tasks. Businesses can also turn towards professional help. An accurate assessment protects business interest and revenue. To adhere to the new regulations, a well-versed knowledge of the system is mandatory. A thorough system grasp is necessary to fully benefit from the new regulations.

Also Read: GST in Stock Transfer

Frequently Asked Questions 

  • Do stock transfers come under the GST model?

GST applies to the buying and selling of all goods and services. GST also considers stock transfers between registered taxable persons as supplies. All supplies are considered under stock transfer valuation guidelines unless specifically exempted.

  • What are the exemptions for model GST law stock transfer?

Some exemptions from GST in stock transfer are transfers between branches of the same registered taxable person within the same state. Transfers of free samples or gifts. The transfer of goods for further manufacture.

  • What documentation does a stock transfer under GST require?

Accurate records of the stock transfers, like information about the items, their value, and the appropriate GST rate. The supplier and recipient of the goods must keep these. These documents need to be preserved for at least five years.

  • Do the related party’s stock transfers fall under special restrictions regarding valuation?

The GST law has particular provisions to avoid undervaluing transactions between related parties. Based on their evaluation, the tax authorities may modify the taxable value if they believe the reported value is less than the true market value.

  • How is the tax of a stock transfer regulated?

As per the stock transfer valuation guidelines, the taxable value is generally the transaction value. This is the price paid for the goods. Different methods used to determine the taxable are Open market value, Cost of production and Declared value.

  • How do you proceed if the transaction value is unknown?

In some situations, the GST law may provide alternate methods of calculating value. One such way is utilizing the value of comparable goods or services or the open market value.

  • What is the difference in the calculation of GST on imported goods?

The value of imported goods for GST includes the customs value, any duty payable, etc.

  • Where can you find detailed information about the valuation of stock transfers under GST?

For further details on the model GST Law stock transfer, one can refer to the GST Valuation Rules, 2017. Consulting a GST professional is also advisable.

  • What happens if stock transfers are valued incorrectly?

If the tax authorities find undervaluation or anomalies in the claimed value, the provider and the recipient may be subject to penalties and interest costs. The tax authorities may also initiate legal action in certain situations.

  • What are the differences in stock transfer valuation between goods and services?

The valuation concepts are the same for both products and services, but the approaches can be different. The open market value or transaction value of comparable services is commonly utilized to ascertain the taxable value of services.

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Shivam Sharma
Shivam Sharma is a penultimate-year BBALLB (Honours) student passionate about crafting insightful content in the finance niche. He remains well-informed through continuous engagement with the latest news, ensuring that his content reflects the most current and relevant insights. Shivam Sharma's unique strength lies in his comprehensive understanding of both the legal and business facets of various topics. This dual expertise allows him to present well-researched content, making him a valuable contributor in the field of business and finance content creation.

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