Understanding GST on Money & Securities, Financial Transaction

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Money and securities are the foundations of a financial system. The medium that allows the exchange of services and goods is money. Securities represent ownership in a company. The impact of GST on financial transactions and its interaction with money and securities is complex and needs to be understood for better investing strategies.

This article takes the reader through a deeper understanding of the idea behind each policy and its implications. The best way to have a clear understanding is by acknowledging the present inconsistencies and the newly evolving system. Read further to resolve all your GST on financial transaction doubts.

Basics of Money and Securities

Money functions as a medium of exchange. It allows people to buy and sell commodities. It comes in different forms, like coins and bills as a physical entity, cryptocurrency, and bank savings as a digital currency. It is used in deals that involve products, services, or debt settlement. Some functions of money are as a store of value, an accounting unit, and a delayed payment standard.

The term security represents a tradable financial instrument. It has a certain monetary value. Securities can signify ownership in a company through stocks, a creditor relationship with a government or a company through ownership of bonds. The value is identified from underlying assets and contractual obligations.

The relationship between money and securities is constantly evolving. The basic differences between the two are:

  1. Primary function

In the case of money, its main function is to act as a medium of exchange. At the same time, securities represent ownership or debt.

  1. Liquidity

Money can be easily exchanged for other assets. Securities, on the other hand, have diverse extents of liquidity.

  1. Risk

Money has a relatively low risk of losing value. Securities can be risky as their value can fluctuate depending on various factors.

  1. Return

Securities act as investments and return through interest payments and capital. Money doesn’t provide any returns. 

GST Fundamentals

The introduction of the Goods and Services Tax has reformed the way people do business in India. It has impacted jobs, businesses and the overall economic environment. The tax system aims at converting the entire nation into a single market. Under GST, Tax is imposed at each point of sale. Both state and central taxes are applied to sales within the same state. An Integrated GST applies to all interstate sales.

GST is applicable in the following scenarios:

  • Mandatory registration is required for individuals providing goods or services valued at more than Rs 20 lakh in a financial year.
  • When the turnover surpasses Rs 20 lakh or Rs 10 lakh for special category states.
  • Those engaged in inter-state taxable supply, every e-commerce operator, and individuals offering goods and services through e-commerce platforms.
  • Aggregators providing services under their brand.
  • Non-resident taxable persons, etc.

Forms of GST

The new layout of GST is supposed to simplify the tax structure by replacing indirect taxes like VAT, customs duty, Excise, CST, Service Tax, and Entertainment Tax with a unified tax. It is implemented in two forms: 

  1. Intra-state

It refers to transactions within a state. The tax is bifurcated into CGST and SGST.

  1. Inter-state

It involves transactions between different states. IGST will be imposed for these transactions. Additionally, supplies to Special Economic Zones (SEZ) are zero-rated. This dual-level taxation system aims to create a more efficient and uniform tax structure across the country.

GST on Money Transactions

The application of GST on money transactions in physical notes and coins is exempted from GST. It stands exempted whether in domestic or foreign currency. The rationale for this exemption is simply due to the role of money as a medium of exchange. Taxing each financial transaction involving money would lead to a negative effect on the economy. It will impose a substantial burden on economic activities and introduce unwanted complexity into daily transactions. The exemption aims to maintain the simplicity and efficiency of financial exchanges.

In the case of money as well, certain exemptions are present. Certain activities related to money are subject to GST under the services category. These include:

  1. Foreign exchange conversion

Charges levied by banks or authorised dealers for converting one currency into another are taxable.

  1. Money transfer charges

Fees charged by banks or other financial institutions for transferring money are subject to GST.

  1. Charges for services related to physical money

Costs associated with activities like counting, sorting, or depositing large amounts of cash might be taxable.

GST on Securities Transactions

Financial products called securities are transferable and are used in both public and private markets to raise funds. The major categories of securities are debt, equities and hybrids. Financial securities are categorised into three:

  1. Equity securities

It represents ownership interest held by shareholders in a company or partnership in the form of shares. Holders of equity securities are not entitled to regular payments. They can profit from capital gains when they sell the securities when their value is increased.

  1. Debt Securities

Debt security signifies borrowed money that must be repaid. This is according to the size of the loan, interest rate, and renewal date. They are issued for a fixed term and must be redeemed at the end. Debt securities can be secured or unsecured. They can be contractually prioritised over other unsecured debts in the case of bankruptcy.

  1. Hybrid Securities

The securities combine some characteristics of both debt and equity securities. Hybrid securities include equity warrants that give shareholders the right to purchase stock. Convertible bonds and preference shares are firm stocks whose payments of interest or other returns of capital can be prioritised above those of other investors.

The other type of securities are investment securities. Tradable financial assets are called investment securities. The prioritised stocks or fixed-income instruments are bought to hold them for investment purposes. Other than loans, marketable securities are often one of the two primary sources of income for banks, which buy them frequently to maintain their portfolios. Debt securities and equity (shares of ownership) in firms are two types of investment securities that banks retain as collateral.

The implementation of GST insecurities has been an evolving process. Initially, to promote the capital market, the taxation of securities under GST was exempted. This included stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. However, activities governing these transactions were brought under GST. These include activities like brokerage commissions & fees, Transfer fees and Management fees for mutual funds, etc.

Key Considerations for GST Compliance

GST compliance can be tricky, particularly when dealing with financial transactions. However, prioritising simple steps can smoothen the process and ensure GST compliance:

  1. GST Registration

Businesses that have revenue exceeding the threshold of Rs. 40 lakh, Rs prioritisingr Rs. 10 lakh, depending on the situation, are required to register as regular taxable persons under GST. Some firms are required to register under the GST, and it is illegal for an organisation to operate without registering. GST registration usually takes two to six business days.

Also Read: All You Need To Know About GST Registration

  1. Filing Returns

A GST return is a document that contains information on all revenue and sales. It also includes all costs and purchases that a GST-registered taxpayer is obligated to report to the tax authorities. This is used by tax authorities to determine net tax liability. In the system, each registered dealer has to file organisation. It includes Purchases, Sales, Output GST (On sales) and Input tax credit GST.

Also Read: Don’t Miss Out: Key Dates for Filing Your GST Returns

  1. Record Keeping and Documentation

Record-keeping practices to ensure compliance with financial regulations in GST. The major considerations are maintaining detailed records and keeping comprehensive records, encompassing invoices, purchase orders, and bank statements. This practice aids in transparency and facilitates efficient financial management.

  1. Payments and Penalties

Paying the GST dues on time to avoid late payment penalties is essential. Knowing the penalty structure and interest charges that may apply for non-compliance is also vital.

International Perspectives on GST and Financial Transactions

Being one of the world’s rapidly expanding economies, India’s implementation of GST is anticipated to yield huge impacts domestically and globally. The removal of tax barriers among states is expected to stimulate economic growth. In the case of international trade, the implementation of GST has the potential to enhance India’s exports and promote competitiveness. The simplification of tax processes is likely to attract increased foreign investment into the country. As more nations adopt GST, India’s incorporation into the evolving global GST environment is signified. Despite initial challenges in implementation, the action stands as a significant milestone in India’s ambitious agenda for growth.

India is among the last major economies to implement a nationwide GST. This accomplishment is huge for a country as extensive and diverse as India. It is viewed as a substantial achievement that opens a new era of cooperative federalism. The establishment of the GST brings together the central and state governments to collectively determine tax policy.

Global perspectives on GST and Finance are focused on two pillars: reallocating taxing rights between source and residence countries and setting a global minimum corporate tax rate. International trade reforms are taking place. The GST system aims to create a fairer tax layout for sharing profits and taxing rights in the digital economy.

Also Read: GST And The Global Economy


On a concluding note, the investors and tax authorities must unravel how the GST will impact financial activities. The complexities of these transactions demand a framework that prevents errors. Guaranteed compliance is provided by such a system.

The mingling between GST and the niche of money and securities is a multifold event. It needs to be understood along with the exemptions, inclusions, and ongoing discourses. The effect of GST on money and securities needs to be reviewed and improved upon regularly. Establishing a transparent, compliant, and efficient financial ecosystem requires teamwork and a well-versed understanding of GST on financial transactions.

Frequently Asked Questions 

  • Is the physical form of money subject to GST?

No, physical money like coins and bills is explicitly exempted from GST. The reason for this is that GST is typically imposed on the supply of goods and services, and money itself is not categorised as a good or service.

  • Why are securities and money free from GST?

They are free to encourage investment in the stock market and economic activity. Directly taxing money would make transactions more difficult. Taxing securities might hinder investments.

  • Are securities like stocks and bonds bound under GST? 

The sale of securities is exempted from GST. But activities like,

  • Brokerage commissions
  • Fees for facilitating corporate transactions in securities.
  • Depository charges and transfer fees. 
  • Charges for providing access to trading platforms are all taxable.
  • Does GST apply while exchanging foreign currency?

Currency exchange falls in the services category; thus, exchange conversion fees are taxable. GST applies to foreign currency exchange in India. This applies to both buying and selling foreign currency.

  • Is GST applicable on trading platforms and stock exchanges? 

Because these platforms charge the users to access their platforms and enable transactions, they are responsible for paying GST.

  • What difficulties arise in guaranteeing adherence and preventing tax evasion in the context of money and securities transactions? 

Addressing these challenges involves:

  • Enhancing reporting and monitoring systems.
  • Promoting improved data exchange among institutions.
  • Increasing awareness about GST regulations in the market.
  • Are there any exceptions to the taxable fees linked to securities transactions? 

Specific charges related to particular transaction types could be exempted, such as fees for the dematerialisation of physical securities or the issuance of duplicate certificates.

  • What consequences arise from non-compliance with GST regulations concerning money and securities? 

Neglecting to pay GST or inaccuracy in filing returns. Other instances of non-compliance can lead to substantial penalties and attract interest charges.

  • How can tax authorities prevent potential misuse of exemptions and avoid tax evasion in this dematerialisation? 

They can utilise techniques such as frequent record audits, risk-based assessments, and market awareness efforts to avoid possible exemption abuse and combat tax evasion in this industry.

  • Which transactions involving securities are liable to GST?

GST applies to most securities transactions, including the purchase and sale of stocks, bonds, etc.

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Shivam Sharma
Shivam Sharma is a penultimate-year BBALLB (Honours) student passionate about crafting insightful content in the finance niche. He remains well-informed through continuous engagement with the latest news, ensuring that his content reflects the most current and relevant insights. Shivam Sharma's unique strength lies in his comprehensive understanding of both the legal and business facets of various topics. This dual expertise allows him to present well-researched content, making him a valuable contributor in the field of business and finance content creation.

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