How are Exclusions Determined?

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Published Date:  27-01-2024   Author:   kiruthika-as
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The GST is a consumption-based tax combining various levies into a single, comprehensive tax to streamline the indirect taxation system. The GST’s application excludes several items, services, or transactions. Exclusions are determined through a complex process governed by legislative frameworks and frequently modified in response to shifting policy and economic factors.

Businesses and individuals navigating the complicated GST landscape must understand how exclusions are established as it directly affects the extent and applicability of the tax regime. Since tax laws are subject to revisions over time, it is essential to check with tax specialists and refer to the most recent versions of the GST regulations for the most accurate and up-to-date information.

Determining Valuation Exclusions Process

To understand the exclusion process, people should know two essential parameters of GST. These terms help in understanding the entire calculation process. Thus making it easier for people to relate to it when calculating in real-life situations.

Value of Supply

All fiscal statutes provide for value determination because taxes are typically paid on an ad-valorem basis. Ad-valorem taxation, or the percentage of the value of the supply of goods or services, is also applicable to GST.

Transaction Value

If there is no relationship between the supplier and the recipient and price is the only consideration, the transaction value—the amount received or payable—is the taxable value under GST law. In most everyday commerce, the taxable value will be the invoice value.

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Nonetheless, the CGST guidelines, 2017 have determined the value of supply guidelines to ascertain the importance of specific transactions.

Once the supply and transaction value are clear, it is time to understand the exclusions made per GST. Exclusion of discounts is – Pre-supply discounts, or the discounts shown on the invoice, have been permitted to be disregarded when calculating the taxable value since they are a typical part of trade and commerce. Examples of these discounts include quantity discounts and trade discounts.

Discounts given after the fact may also be disregarded when calculating the taxable value as long as two requirements are satisfied:

  • The discount is defined in a pre-supply agreement between the supplier and the recipient and is associated with pertinent invoices.
  • The recipient reverses the input tax credit that is related to the discounts.

Also Read: What Are The Exclusions In Valuation?

Methodology for Exclusions in Valuation

Let’s understand some scenarios to determine how exclusions are considered during the valuation process.

Open Market Value

If the valuation happens in the open market scenario, the full value of money is considered, excluding the taxes as per GST laws. It is the amount a person must spend to get a supply when the supply is being evaluated. However, provided that the supply is made between unrelated parties, price is the only form of consideration.

Value of Supply of Services (Pure Agent)

Subject to the fulfillment of certain restrictions, the fees and expenses incurred by the supplier acting as the recipient’s pure agent must be deducted from the supply’s value. Let’s understand this with an example:

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Sunrise Limited is handling the recruitment work related to Bespoken’s incorporation. In addition to its service costs, Sunrise Limited receives the approval and registration fees for the company name from Bespoken that were paid to the Registrar of the Companies. Bespoken must pay the costs assessed by the company’s Registrar for both name approval and registration.

Sunrise Limited is just paying those fees as a pure agent. As a result, Sunrise Limited’s reimbursement for these costs is a payout rather than a component of the supply value provided to Bespoken.

Besides the above, people should also know that any taxpayer with an annual turnover of up to Rs. 20 lakh is exempted from GST. The same slab is Rs. 10 lakhs for all particular category states. Additionally, there are some zero-rate supplies in GST, specifically for goods exempted from the GST valuation.

Factors Influencing Exclusion Determination

Exemptions or exclusions in GST apply to certain goods and services or businesses in India. The GST law governs these exemptions and can change if the committee decides. These exemptions are also given for numerous reasons, such as reducing the overall tax burden or supporting specific sectors. Below are some reasons for exemptions in GST:

Public Interest and Social Welfare

Some goods and services are essential for the public interest and social welfare and are exempt from GST. Some things included in this list are essential food items, such as milk, rice, wheat, etc., education and healthcare services.

Small Enterprises and Businesses

There might be exemptions or discounted rates for companies with lesser turnover to lessen the regulatory load on small enterprises and encourage ease of business. An example can be the composition scheme that provides a lower GST rate for small businesses with an annual turnover limit.

Export of Goods and Services

Under GST, exports are primarily zero-rated. It means that even though they are subject to the tax, the rate is zero percent. This guarantees that the GST won’t negatively impact exports and will remain competitive in global markets.

Interstate Supplies

Governments often make rules to promote easy trade between states. Therefore, certain goods and services are exempted from GST or applied at a lower rate. It is done to encourage healthy movement between different states.


The GST law takes special care for agriculture and services related to it. Thus, certain agricultural services and products are considered exempt from the GST. It is done to ensure agriculture is promoted, as it is a significant contributor to the Indian economy.

Government Services

To prevent double taxation and streamline accounting, some services rendered by the government or local authorities are excluded from GS.

Valuation Components Exclusion Calculation

One must remember certain things when calculating the valuation of supply in GST. Although there are numerous inclusions, there are specific exclusions within those inclusions that should also be considered. Those are:

  • While including taxes, fees, duties, cess, or any other charges, the GST charges are permanently excluded. Additionally, the GST compensation cess will also be excluded if it is charged separately by the supplier.
  • All the government subsidies will also be excluded. It includes both state and central government subsidies.

Let’s also understand what the GST exclusive term refers to. GST exclusive or excluding GST means the price or cost of the product or service without adding the GST rate. In such cases, the GST rate does not affect the overall pricing of the product or service.  

Here are two examples of how GST is calculated, considering the exclusions in mind.

When Discount is Shown in Invoice

The businesses frequently give dealers a trade discount based on the quantity of goods supplied. Since this type of discount appears on the invoice face, the price after the discount will be the transaction value.

Consider the following scenario: a car costs Rs. 5 lakh, but because it’s a year-end sale, there is a 5% discount. In this instance, the amount after the discount not included in the transaction value will be Rs. 4.75 Lakh, which is the transaction value.

When Discount is Not Shown in Invoice

Ajay gave Bharat a credit of Rs. 20,000 on July 1, 2023, in exchange for an air conditioner. Ajay gives Bharat a discount of Rs. 5,000 on August 1, 2023, and Bharat pays Rs. 15000. if the discount is known after or at the time of supply, the transaction value will be Rs. 20,000. However, the transaction value will only be Rs. 15000 if the discount depends on the contract’s conditions or the payment terms.

Steps for Determining Exclusions in Valuation

One must understand the different types of GST exemptions to determine the exclusions in valuation. There are three types which are considered in India:

  • Absolute exemptions are provided on the total amount without any restrictions or conditions. For example, RBI services are exempted.
  • Conditional – These exemptions are attached to certain limits, restrictions, or conditions. For example, hotel services are exempted up to a specific limit.
  • Partial – Only if the total value of supplies is less than Rs. 5,000 per day will unregistered individuals who provide commodities within the state to a registered person be free from GST under reverse charge.

Once the type of GST exemption is determined, look at the things considered exempt for calculations.

For instance, here is the list of supplies that are exempt from GST:

  • Supplies that are chargeable to nil or zero tax.
  • All supplies that are either wholly or partially exempt from GST as per the notification amending Section 6 of IGST and Section 11 of CGST.
  • All supplies in Section 2(78) talk about supplies not covered under this act—for example, alcohol and liquor for human consumption.

Similarly, there will be an exemption for goods, services, and businesses when determining the exclusion in valuation. All these are critical and essential to consider at the time of valuation, or it can lead to incorrect taxation.


To sum up, determining exclusions under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) is intricate and ever-changing, substantially impacting the extent and implementation of this taxation scheme. The exclusivity standards may be modified as governments continue to hone and adjust their tax laws to conform to changing legislative agendas and economic conditions.

Individuals and companies looking to understand the complexities of GST and make sure they comply with the rules must keep up with these advancements. To correctly manage their tax liabilities within the GST framework, stakeholders must maintain constant attention, seek professional guidance, and comprehensively understand the exclusion criteria as the global economic climate and tax structures change.

Also Read: Examples Of Exclusions In The Valuation Of Goods And Services


  • For what reason is the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regarded as a tax on consumption?

The consumption-based Goods and Services Tax, or GST, replaces multiple levies with a comprehensive tax.

  • How are GST exclusions calculated?

Legislative frameworks regulate a convoluted process determining whether items are excluded from GST. They are frequently altered in reaction to shifting economic and policy conditions.

  • Which situations are good examples of how exclusions are considered throughout the GST valuation process?

Exclusions are considered throughout the valuation process, as demonstrated by scenarios such as open market valuation and the value of the supply of the services (in the event of a pure agent).

  • Who is not subject to GST, and what criteria determine this?

GST does not apply to taxpayers having annual revenue up to Rs. 20 lakh. Some variables that affect exemptions include public interest, social welfare, small businesses, exports of goods and services, interstate supply, agriculture, and government services.

  • Give examples of how GST is computed, keeping exclusions in mind, mainly when discounts are involved.

Understanding how GST is computed with exclusions in mind is made more accessible by examples involving discounts shown on invoices and discounts, not on invoices.

  • What kinds of GST exemptions, and how do they affect valuation exclusions?

GST exemptions come in three flavors: conditional, partial, and absolute. Determining exclusions in valuation requires grasping each kind’s particular requirements or limits.

  • What criteria does one need to know to comprehend the GST exclusion process?

Understanding the essential computation components of the “Value of Supply” and “Transaction Value” is vital to comprehending the GST exclusion procedure.

  • Could you elaborate on the meaning of “pre-supply discounts” and how they affect the taxable value under GST?

Pre-supply discounts like trade and quantity discounts may be disregarded when determining the taxable value under GST. Nevertheless, post-supply discounts are subject to specific requirements.

  • Which elements are not included in the GST supply valuation calculation?

Components like GST charges, GST compensation cess, and government subsidies are not included in the GST valuation of supply calculation.

  • What does “excluding GST” or “GST exclusive” mean, and how does it affect the price?

The term “GST exclusive” describes the cost or price of a good or service minus the applicable GST rate. In certain circumstances, the GST rate unaffected the total price of the goods or services.

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Kiruthika AS

Kiruthika is passionate about writing and keen on writing articles related to tax, accounting, audit, and other finance-related topics. She has authored numerous articles, from personal finance and investing for ETmoney, Equirius, and ABSL health insurance. She enjoys staying up-to-date with the latest financial world developments and exploring new investment opportunities.

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