What is the Rule 27 of Valuation under GST?

Home » Blogs » What is the Rule 27 of Valuation under GST?

Table of Contents


Taxes are one of the major types of expenses that a business is responsible for paying. It is a portion or percentage of earnings that a person pays to the government to keep the nation running and developing. However, directly giving up a certain percentage of your whole income can be unfair and put your business and family in a tough financial position. Thus, there are different rules of valuation under GST Act.

GST valuation rules ensure a just and reasonable framework that is tailored to numerous situations. Have you ever wondered how the GST of something you buy or sell at a discount is calculated? That is what Rule 27 of GST valuation deals with. If you do not know much about it, read this article till the end.

Understanding Rule 27 of GST Valuation in Detail

Rule 27 of the CGST Rules, 2017, deals with determining the value of a taxable supply where the consideration (payment received) is not wholly in money. This means when goods or services are exchanged for something other than cash, like barter, discounts, or part-payment in kind.

The rule outlines four methods, applicable sequentially, to determine the value of the taxable supply:

  1. Open Market Value (OMV)

OMV is the preferred method. OMV refers to the price at which identical goods or services are normally sold in an open market at the time and place of supply.

  1. Consideration in Money and Equivalent Value of Non-Monetary Consideration

If OMV is unavailable, the value is the fair market value of the non-monetary consideration (such as products transferred) plus the sum of the money received.

  1. Value of Similar Goods/Services

If neither OMV nor the equivalent value can be determined, the value is based on the price of similar goods or services of like kind and quality.

  1. Application of Rule 30 or Rule 31

As a last resort, if none of the previous methods work, the value is determined using either Rule 30 (merchant valuation method) or Rule 31 (special methods for valuation).

Application of Rule 27 of GST Valuation in Various Scenarios

Rule 27 of GST Valuation methods is crucial in determining the value of taxable supplies in various scenarios. Some of the ways this rule is applied in different situations are:

  1. Barter Transactions

In barter transactions, where goods or services are exchanged without involving money, Rule 27 helps determine the transaction value. The value is normally determined using the open market value of the products or services transferred.

Example: A farmer exchanges wheat for machinery with a manufacturer. The value of the taxable supply for both parties would be determined using Rule 27, typically based on the OMV of the goods or services exchanged.

  1. Part Payment in Kind

When a part of the payment for a supply is made in goods or services, Rule 27 aids in ascertaining the value of that supply. The valuation takes into account the open market value of the products or services received as payment.

Example: A contractor receives a house as partial payment for building a commercial complex. The value of the taxable supply would include the OMV of the house received as payment.

  1. Employee Discounts

In cases where employees receive goods or services at a discounted price from their employer, Rule 27 is applied to determine the taxable value. The discounted amount is usually subtracted from the open market value to arrive at the taxable value.

Example: A retailer provides a 50% discount on clothing to its employees. The taxable value would be the OMV of the clothing, not the discounted price paid by employees.

  1. Supply Between Principal and Agent

When an agent supplies goods on behalf of a principal, Rule 27 assists in valuing the supply. The value is typically the open market value of the goods supplied by the agent on behalf of the principal.

Example: A distributor supplies goods on behalf of a manufacturer. The manufacturer can opt to value the supply at 90% of the price charged by the distributor to the end customer, provided certain conditions are met.

  1. Buy-One-Get-One-Free (BOGO) Offers

For BOGO offers, where an additional product is given for free with the purchase of one, Rule 27 is applied to determine the transaction value. The taxable value is generally based on the open market value of the product being sold.

Example: A grocery store offers a BOGO deal on shampoo. The taxable value would be the OMV of both shampoo bottles, even though the customer pays for only one.

  1. Loyalty Points Redemption

When customers redeem loyalty points for goods or services, Rule 27 is used to establish the taxable value. The value is often determined by considering the open market value of the goods or services for which the loyalty points are redeemed.

Example: A customer redeems 1000 loyalty points for a free cup of coffee. The taxable value would be the OMV of the coffee, even though no money is exchanged at the time of redemption.

  1. Sponsored Events

In cases where sponsors provide goods or services in exchange for publicity or branding opportunities, Rule 27 helps in valuing the supply. The taxable value is often the fair market value of the products or services given by the sponsor.

Example: A beverage company sponsors a sporting event by providing free drinks. The taxable value would be the OMV of the drinks provided.

  1. Accommodation Provided to Employees

When employers provide accommodation to employees as part of their remuneration, Rule 27 is applied to determine the taxable value. The value is typically based on the open market value of the accommodation provided.

Example: A company provides free housing to its employees in a remote location. The taxable value would be the OMV of the accommodation provided.

Legal and Regulatory Aspects Related to Rule 27 of GST Valuation

Rule 27 of the CGST Rules, 2017, stands as the foundation for determining a taxable value for supplies where consideration is not entirely in monetary terms. The legal and regulatory framework surrounding this rule is essential for businesses and tax authorities to explore such scenarios effectively. Some of its key aspects are:

  1. Legislative Basis

Rule 27 finds its legislative backing in Section 15(1) of the CGST Act, 2017. This section empowers the Government to prescribe the manner of determining the value of taxable supplies. The rule aligns with the Model GST Law and incorporates best practices in valuation for taxation purposes.

  1. Legal Implications

Accurate valuation under Rule 27 is pivotal as it directly influences the GST liability for the supplier and the input tax credit available to the recipient. Incorrect valuation may result in legal consequences, including tax penalties and, in severe cases, prosecution. Both suppliers and recipients bear the responsibility of adhering to Rule 27 provisions and maintaining adequate documentation to support the declared value.

  1. Regulatory Framework

The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs issues clarifications and notifications to offer further guidance on Rule 27’s application in specific situations. Businesses can also seek advance rulings from GST authorities to obtain binding decisions on the valuation method, especially in complex cases. Moreover, anti-abuse provisions are in place to prevent attempts to manipulate the value of a supply under Rule 27 for tax evasion.

Challenges and Issues Surrounding Implementation of Rule 27 of GST Valuation

While Rule 27 aims to establish transparency and ensure fair valuation in non-monetary transactions, its implementation has challenges and issues. Some of its main challenges are:

  1. Difficulty in Determining Open Market Value

Finding reliable data on the OMV of goods or services, especially for unique or customised items, can be challenging. This can lead to disputes between taxpayers and tax authorities regarding the appropriate value under Rule 27.

  1. Subjectivity and Manipulation

When OMV is unavailable, the rule relies on subjective methods like “equivalent value” or “similar goods/services.” This opens the door for potential manipulation and valuation discrepancies, leading to potential tax evasion or overpayment.

  1. Administrative Burden

Maintaining proper documentation and records to support the declared value under Rule 27 can be unmanageable for businesses, especially for complex transactions. This can increase compliance costs and administrative burdens.

  1. Lack of Clarity in Specific Situations

The rule may not provide clear guidance for specific scenarios, such as barter involving multiple goods or services or transactions involving intangible assets. This ambiguity can lead to confusion and uncertainty for taxpayers, potentially hindering compliance.

  1. Anti-Abuse Measures

While provisions exist to prevent intentional manipulation of Rule 27, their effectiveness can be debated. The burden of proof often falls on the taxpayer to demonstrate fair valuation, which can be challenging in complex cases.

  1. Impact on Small Businesses

The difficulties of Rule 27 might disproportionately affect small enterprises, who have limited resources and experience in comprehending and complying with tax laws. This can create an uneven playing field compared to larger corporations with dedicated tax teams.

  1. Potential Misuse of Valuation Methods

Some methods, like the 90% option for principal-agent supplies, can be misused to reduce tax liability if not applied carefully and with proper safeguards.

  1. Lack of Training and Awareness

Both taxpayers and tax officials may not be sufficiently trained or aware of the nuances of Rule 27. This leads to misinterpretations and inconsistent application.


Rule 27 in GST valuation rules is rooted in Sec. 15(1) of the CGST Act, 2017. It is crucial for determining the taxable value of supplies involving non-monetary considerations. Its legal and regulatory framework, emphasising principles like substance over form and fairness, highlights the significance of accurate valuation.

When dealing with situations like barter exchanges or employee discounts, Rule 27 requires careful attention and adherence. However, the regulations in such matters often change with time. Therefore, businesses must stay updated and seek professional advice to ensure compliance with the rules.

Also Read: GST: Everything You Need To Know

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is the rule 31 of GST valuation rules?

The residual method is employed to ascertain the value of the supply of goods, services, or both. In cases where a reference rate is unavailable, the value is set at 1% of the gross amount of Indian Rupees exchanged by the individual. Simply put, it is one per cent of the amount provided or received in Indian rupees when a reference rate is not accessible.

  • What is Valuation Rule 29?

Under Rule 29 of CGST Rules, if certain conditions are met, the value of service supply by a Pure Agent excludes the costs incurred by the supplier. This ensures that the value represents the actual service provided, not including expenses borne by the agent for the recipient’s benefit.

  • What is meant by the valuation of goods?

The customs value of goods is typically the transaction value – the actual price paid or payable for the goods. It encompasses the invoice price along with the transport and insurance expenses.

  • What is the valuation of stock in GST?

Under GST, the value of a stock transfer is determined by the transaction value, reflecting the actual price paid or payable for the supply. This applies when the supplier and recipient are unrelated, and the price constitutes the exclusive consideration for the supply.

  • What is the valuation calculation?

Company valuation based on revenue involves calculating the total revenue before deducting operating expenses and then multiplying it by an industry multiple. The industry multiple represents the average valuation in that specific industry, providing an estimate of what companies typically sell for within that sector.

  • What is the stock valuation process?

Stock valuation is a crucial tool for informed decision-making in trading through a share market app. This technique employs standard formulas to determine the value of a company’s stock.

  • What is the rate of valuation?

The prevalent method for stock valuation involves calculating the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio. This ratio is derived by dividing the company’s stock price by its latest reported earnings per share (EPS). A low P/E ratio suggests that investors are getting a compelling value when purchasing the stock.

  • What is the formula for stock valuation?

The Annual Rate on Valuation is the key factor used to determine the annual Commercial Rates paid by the occupier of a rateable property each year.

  • What is the EPS formula?

Earnings per share (EPS) is determined by dividing a company’s profit by its outstanding shares of common stock. This figure acts as a measure of a company’s profitability. Companies often report an adjusted EPS, accounting for extraordinary items and potential share dilution.

  • What is the difference between price and valuation?

This represents a fundamental distinction between the notions of price and value. When purchasing a product or stock, you pay a specific market price. Particularly with stocks, this market price is impacted by various objective and subjective factors.

author avatar
Shivam Sharma
Shivam Sharma is a penultimate-year BBALLB (Honours) student passionate about crafting insightful content in the finance niche. He remains well-informed through continuous engagement with the latest news, ensuring that his content reflects the most current and relevant insights. Shivam Sharma's unique strength lies in his comprehensive understanding of both the legal and business facets of various topics. This dual expertise allows him to present well-researched content, making him a valuable contributor in the field of business and finance content creation.

Leave a Reply