What Is A Joint Development Agreement (JDA) Under GST?

Home » Blogs » What Is A Joint Development Agreement (JDA) Under GST?

Table of Contents

Introduction To The Joint Development Agreement (JDA):

A joint development agreement is an arrangement between two or more events to mutually develop a real property undertaking. Typically, the landowner offers the land at the same time as the developer brings it within the understanding and price range required for improvement. The revenue, prices, and profits are shared between the events in line with the terms of the JDA.

JDAs are commonly used in actual estate development as they allow landowners with large plots to unencumber their land’s potential by partnering with skilled builders. For developers, JDAs provide admission to top land without primary premature acquisition prices. JDAs gain each event through threat and value-sharing.

With the implementation of GST in 2017, JDAs have become the new taxation regime. GST has introduced extra compliance requirements and complexities around JDAs.

Understanding The Joint Development Agreement:

JDA serves as a contractual arrangement between a landowner and a real estate developer, outlining the collaboration in constructing tasks on the landowner’s assets.

Objectives Of Entering Into A JDA:

The primary targets of accomplishing a Joint Development Agreement are multifaceted, catering to the pursuits of both the landowner and the developer:

  1. For the landowner: Monetization without ownership transfer
  • Monetize land assets without relinquishing ownership rights.
  • Share in mission revenues to beautify monetary profits.
  1. For the developer: Access to prime locations
  • Gain access to suitable places without tremendous economic commitments.
  1. For both parties: Risk mitigation and resource optimization
  • Mitigate risks related to actual estate improvement.
  • Optimize the efficient utilization of sources for mutual benefit.

JDA Model: Collaborative Development Process

The fashionable JDA version involves a sequence of nicely defined steps to facilitate collaboration between the landowner and the developer:

  1. Transfer Of Development Rights
  • The landowner transfers improvement rights to the developer for a special period.
  1. Project Planning And Approvals
  • The developer formulates assignment plans and secures vital approvals.
  1. Investment And Construction
  • The developer invests their very own budget and makes use of information for challenge creation.
  1. Marketing And Sales
  • The developer takes the rate of advertising and promoting the developed units.
  1. Revenue Sharing
  • Revenue from the project is shared among the landowner and developer based totally on a pre-agreed ratio.
  1. Ratio Determination
  • The ratio is decided considering elements that include land value, development charges, and associated dangers.

What Are The Key Components Of JDA Under GST?

Some key aspects that need to be tested carefully in a JDA from a GST perspective are:

GST applicability: The most important question is whether or not GST is relevant to the JDA. It depends on whether or not the JDA includes substances, products, or offerings that qualify as composite or mixed delivery. The structure of the JDA needs to be aligned with the tax implications.

Valuation: The fee for delivery of products and offerings within the JDA must be decided by the GST Valuation Rules. It includes the value of the switch of improvement rights, construction offerings, and other materials between the events. Valuation disputes are common.

Place Of Delivery: The location of delivery provisions ought to be analyzed to decide the area where GST wishes to be paid. This affects which birthday party is liable for the tax price.

Input Tax Credit: The eligibility and apportionment of input tax credits between the landowner and developer ought to be clear. Typically, the developer is eligible for ITC.

Time Of Delivery: The point when the liability to pay GST arises ought to be exact and aligned with GST regulation.

Tax Invoices: To avail ITC, proper tax invoices are to be issued through each event as per stipulated timelines and information.

Tax Payments: Responsibility for GST payments, techniques, penalties, and so on. It ought to be elaborately covered inside the JDA.

Compliances: GST registration, returns, audits, and so on. It includes the compliance of each party. Roles have to be well-defined.

Transition regulations: The treatment of pre-GST taxes like VAT, provider tax, and so forth. Desires elaboration.

Dispute settlement: Time-certain dispute resolution is essential for tax-related disputes between the parties.

What Are The Tax Implications And Considerations In Joint Development Agreements?

Tax implications inside JDAs may be complicated and are contingent on the precise terms of the agreement and the jurisdiction wherein the venture unfolds. Understanding and addressing those tax issues is critical for both builders and landowners. Here are key aspects to ponder:

Income Tax Considerations For Developers:

  • Income generated from a JDA by using the developer is usually categorized as enterprise earnings.
  • Assets involved in the agreement appear as inventory in trade.

Capital Gains Tax Implications For Landowners:

  • For landowners, participating in a JDA can also have capital gains tax implications.
  • Tax treatment hinges on the provisions mentioned in the tax regulation of the pertinent jurisdiction.

Withholding Tax Requirements:

  • Certain jurisdictions mandate the deduction of tax at the supply for sums paid underneath a JDA.
  • The charge of withholding tax and its situations are a concern for local tax policies.

International Tax Complexities:

  • Cross-border JDAs introduce problematic tax troubles like switch pricing, withholding taxes, and double taxation.
  • Prudent consideration of worldwide tax implications is critical, as is adherence to the tax laws of applicable jurisdictions.

Indirect Taxes:

  • Depending on the character of JDA activities and the jurisdiction, oblique taxes consisting of cost-added tax or goods and services tax may additionally be practiced.
  • A thorough accounting for those oblique taxes is vital.

Profit Allocation Methodology:

  • A clear income allocation method in the JDA is critical to averting potential tax pitfalls.
  • The absence of a robust earnings-sharing settlement might also hinder the JDA due to disparate tax rules, mainly due to unintended tax effects.

Legal And Accounting Guidance:

  • Given the intricacy of tax implications in JDAs, looking for criminal and accounting advice is helpful.
  • Professional advice aids in ensuring compliance with pertinent tax laws and optimizing the tax structure of the settlement for all involved parties.

Understanding and addressing those tax intricacies is essential to mitigating risks and optimizing monetary outcomes within the realm of joint development agreements.

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Entering A Joint Development Agreement Under GST?

When deliberating joint development agreements within the framework of the goods and services tax, it’s critical to weigh the advantages and downsides associated with such arrangements.


  1. Collaboration And Synergy:
  • JDAs foster collaboration, encouraging events to paint harmoniously towards a shared goal.
  • Promotes innovation and synergy among involved entities.
  1. Flexibility and Adaptability:
  • JDAs must possess the capability to adapt to changing occasions, economic shifts, or technological improvements.
  • Ensures that the settlement stays applicable and effective over time.
  1. Market Access And Expansion:
  • JDAs provide groups with avenues to enter new markets or decorate their presence in existing ones.
  • Facilitates growth and marketplace diversification opportunities for the involved parties.


  1. Complexity And Longevity:
  • Real property ventures, by nature, call for long-term dedication, and complexities may also arise, leading to disagreements and disputes.
  • Challenges related to the prolonged period of the technique may also affect the sustainability of the JDA.
  1. Regulatory Risks:
  • The evolving regulatory landscape may introduce new policies governing joint trends, posing capabilities and dangers to existing agreements.
  • Requires a vigilant method to navigate and comply with converting regulatory necessities.
  1. Unforeseen Events:
  • Parties involved in JDAs may also face vulnerabilities to unforeseen events or disruptions of their male or female activities, which could reverberate in the JDA.
  • Highlights the need for threat mitigation techniques and contingency-making plans.

What Are The GST-Specific Considerations?

  1. GST Non-Applicability:
  • Under the GST regime, it’s important to be aware that GST isn’t relevant to joint improvement agreements.
  • Offers good tax surroundings for JDAs beneath GST.
  1. Complexity And Regulatory Risks:
  • Despite the absence of GST implications, the complexities and regulatory dangers associated with JDAs call for careful consideration.
  • Emphasizes the importance of searching for legal and accounting advice to ensure compliance with relevant laws and rules.

While GST might not directly impact JDAs, a complete understanding of the benefits, risks, and related complexities is imperative. Seeking expert steerage aids in navigating capacity challenges and optimizing the efficacy of Joint Development Agreements within the GST framework.

What Are The Recent Updates, Amendments, And Clarifications By The GST Council On JDAs?

The GST Council has applied extensive updates, amendments, and clarifications regarding JDAs. These developments intend to provide clarity and address tax implications. Here are key highlights from current updates:

Exemption Of GST On Development Rights:

Decision: In the thirty-fourth GST Council Meeting on March 19, 2019, a critical decision was made to exempt GST on development rights, consisting of transferable development rights (TDR), joint development agreements (JDA), rent (premium), and Floor Space Index (FSI). This exemption is mainly relevant to below-construction residential houses’ challenge to GST.

Significance: Aligns to sell the real property area and streamline taxation for underneath-production residential properties.

Clarification On GST Applicability:

CBIC Clarification: The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) issued a rationalization in January 2018, maintaining that GST is not relevant to the attention received through landowners under a JDA. This is interpreted as a supply of providers from the landowner to the developer.

Significance: Provides a clear directive on the non-applicability of GST to landowners inside the context of JDAs, setting up it as a provider rather than a taxable deliver.

Impact Of GST On JDAs:

Developer’s Liability: While landowners are exempt from GST on JDA issues, developers may be vulnerable to paying GST on the offerings they provide.

GST Rate Variability: The relevant GST price on developer services is contingent on the nature of the services rendered.

Significance: Recognizes the differential tax treatment for landowners and developers, emphasizing the offerings aspect of the JDA.

While the GST isn’t levied on landowners’ concerns in JDAs, developers face capability GST responsibilities on their offerings. The specific GST price relevant to developer services is contingent on the nature of the furnished services. Staying abreast of the GST Council’s updates, amendments, and clarifications is vital for JDA-involved events.

Seeking expert advice ensures compliance with evolving laws and guidelines, protecting against unintentional tax implications. Parties in JDAs are encouraged to preserve diligence and are searching for professional guidance to navigate the difficult landscape of GST regulations.

Also Read: Understanding Joint Development Agreements (JDAs) And GST Implications


Joint Development Agreements allow gold standard utilization of land by bringing collectively landowners and developers together. However, complex felony and tax implications have arisen under GST because of factors like valuation, input tax credits, opposite prices, and so on. Proper structuring of the JDA as per GST necessities and clean expertise of the tax implications through each party is essential. The authorities have additionally supplied diverse clarifications over the years to cope with concerns. Overall, JDAs remain an attractive alternative for landowners and builders, despite the emergence of GST-demanding situations.

Also Read: GST on Joint Development Agreement

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1. Is JDA taxable under income tax?

Answer: Yes, under Section 45(5A), income tax applies to joint development agreements. When the real estate developer provides monetary consideration in addition to the project share, they must deduct TDS at 10%, or 20% if the owner’s PAN is unavailable.

Q2. What is the difference between a JD and a JV?

Answer: While the terms Joint Venture (JV) and Joint Development Agreement (JDA) are often used interchangeably, they differ significantly. A joint venture applies to any business, whereas a joint development agreement is specific to the real estate sector.

Q3. Can an owner sell the property in a joint development agreement?

Answer: The landowner has limited rights to the project and cannot sell the newly constructed building without obtaining a no-objection certificate from the developer.

Q4. What is the TDS rate for JDA?

Answer: The liability to deduct TDS under Section 194-IC is applicable when the real estate developer makes monetary payments in addition to the project share. In such cases, the developer must deduct TDS at a rate of 10%.

Q5. What is the difference between JDA and TDR?

Answer: In the case of transferable development rights (TDR), the transferor pays GST on the TDR value, while the transferee can claim an input tax credit (ITC). In a Joint Development Agreement, the developer pays GST on the value of their share of the developed property, and the landowner can claim ITC.

author avatar
Sriyalini Mathivanan Writer
Sri Yalini YM is a qualified finance professional with expertise in GST compliance and financial matters, she brings comprehensive knowledge to provide expert insights.

Leave a Reply