Tax Implications for Small Businesses in Specific Industries

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Published Date:  23-11-2023   Author:   prarabdh-gupta
tax implications for small businesses in specific industries

Taxes are one of the biggest hurdles for both small and medium-sized businesses. It stops a company from reinvesting the profits into their business employees and competing for a bigger market share. Instead, taxes act as a burden for all businesses across all industries. Previously, there were different types of taxes imposed on the companies on the same product, which led to confusion and higher administrative costs. 

To tackle various challenges, the government has introduced the concept of Goods and Services Tax (GST), which has brought many changes in business across multiple industries. In this article, we have covered all the possible tax implications for small businesses in specific industries. If you also want to know more about them to manage your existing business better or start a new one with complete knowledge, this is surely the place you won’t regret. Without any delay, let’s begin the guide !! 

GST Implications for Small Businesses in the Textile Industry

The textile industry contains various small and medium-sized businesses in India. In fact, the country exports around 10% of its total annual exports from this sector only, and it will even increase after the implementation of GST. This new compliance has made various changes in the entire cotton value chain of the textile industry. It includes garments like shirts, sarees, shoes, trousers, and all for both men and women. 

Before the GST, there used to be different types of taxes available, including Value Added Tax (VAT), Customs Duty, Entry Tax, Excise Duty, and more. GST (Goods and Services Tax) has created a single system that has made the tax filing processes a lot simpler and easier. It has saved all taxpayers from the hassle of managing multiple taxes. Below, we have mentioned the major GST implications for small businesses in the textile industry. 

1. Break in Input Credit Chain

The Indian textile industry is significantly operated under the unorganized sector and composition scheme. It directly creates a gap in the input tax credit flow. Under GST, you can not claim the input tax credit if you have obtained the inputs from the unorganized sector or composition scheme taxpayer. This “break in input” of GST has been implemented to create a smooth input tax credit system and shift the entire industry towards the organized sector. 

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2. Reduce Compliance Burden 

In the pre-GST era, small or medium businesses had to take the help of different agencies for managing different types of taxes, including Excise Duty, VAT, OCTROI, etc. Now, GST has summed up all the taxes into one and significantly reduced a compliance burden from the shoulders of business owners. It allows the traders to focus more on expanding their business without having to worry about compliance activities. 

3. Lower Production Cost 

GST has significantly impacted the input costs incurred in the garment industry by submitting different taxes into one. For instance, the Excise Duty and Value Added Tax used to be differently imposed on the yarn and branded garments and it directly increased the cost of the final products. Plus, these taxes also used to be different from state to state. Here, the GST has introduced uniformity and simplification in the taxation system, which reduced the input cost, which has eventually reduced the manufacturing cost in the textile industry. 

4. Job Worker Status Under GST 

In the textile industry, businesses often implement the job-work phenomena to process goods. Under GST compliance, this is considered as the supply of service to the workers. They have to register this process under the GST and discharge tax liability based on how much turnover they have generated. The rate of GST over job-work in the textile industry has even reduced from 18% to 5%. It has been implemented to make sure that compliance doesn’t significantly impact the job worker. 

5. Input Tax Credit Allowed on Capital Goods 

The import cost of obtaining and implementing the new technologies for the production of textile goods is highly expensive for now. Because the excuse paid is not allowed as an input tax credit, under the GST, you will be allowed to claim the input tax credit on capital goods. 

GST Implications for Small Businesses in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Goods and Service Tax (GST) has widely impacted the entire Pharmaceutical Industry in India. GST compliance has subsumed various types of central or state taxes into a single streamlined tax system structure. It has also eliminated the cascading effect. For instance, small businesses used to bear various types of taxes, including excise duty, service tax, and value-added tax, over a single product before the implementation of GST. It has also helped the businesses by reducing the compliance burdens and administrative complexities.  

When there was no GST, the taxes used to vary from state to state. Thus, it has led many businesses to set up their warehouses in the states with low tax rates or to take advantage of certain exemptions and state schemes. Now, when the entire taxation system is uniform under the GST, companies can establish their warehouses more strategically across the country. As they only have to pay the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) for the interstate supply of goods and services. 

Moreover, the GST has also allowed pharmaceutical businesses to claim the input tax credit. It allows companies to save their costs by offsetting their taxes paid on the raw materials and services against the final tax liability they incurred. However, GST has certain rules and regulations that every business has to follow; otherwise, it might result in legal penalties and punishments. Businesses have to invest in various types of resources to thoroughly understand the accounting and billing system required in the GST. It might also need you to train your employees, update the software, and stay informed regarding any upcoming amendments related to the GST framework.   

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GST Tax Rates on Medicines and Medical Goods 

Tax Rate  Medicine and Medical Goods 
NIL Human blood and all its related components 
NIL Any type of contraceptive
NIL Sanitary pads and tampons 
NIL Services provided under the Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992

 

Tax Rate  Medicine and Medical Goods 
5% Vaccines of human or animal blood 
5% Salts for oral rehydration 
5% Artificial kidneys and limbs 
5% Hepatitis diagnostic kit 
5% All the formulations produced through bulk drugs of List 2 of central excise notification 12/2012. For instance, it includes Pyrazinamide, Quinine, Streptomycin, and 20+ other drugs as well. 
5% Disposable sterilized analyzer or the artificial kidney’s micro barrier 
5% Cyclosporin
5% Insulin 
5% Desferrioxamine injection or deferiprone 
5% Medicaments of the biochemical system without bearing any brand name 
5% Milk food for babies
5% Ostomy Appliances and Covid-19 diagnostic test kits 
5% Any part of the wheelchairs, tricycles, trailers, crutches, walking frames and more 
5% Medications are used in the butilisedal system, but make sure that they are not labeled as such. It might also include veterinary medicine.  

 

Tax Rate  Medicine and Medical Goods 
12% Feeding bottles and their related nipples 
12% Animal blood used for therapy, prophylactic, diagnosis 
12% Microorganisms culture (yeast not included), toxins, and any such products
12% Tooth powder
12% Bandages, wadding, gauze, pharmaceutical coated substances, retail sale for surgical, dental, medical, or veterinary purposes 
12% Medicaments that consist of two or more constituents that have been mixed for prophylactic or therapeutic uses. They are not in measured/forms/packings for retail sale and also do not include the goods under heading 30.02, 30.05, and 30.06. It includes ayurvedic, unani, homeopathic, or biochemic systems medicaments. 
12% Medicaments consist of various mixed or unmixed products for prophylactic or therapeutic use. At this time, they are in measured doses/forms/packings for retail sale and again do not include the goods under heading 30.02, 30.05, and 30.06. It includes ayurvedic, unani, homeopathic, or biochemic systems medicaments. 
12% Apparatus and machines like X-rays used for the purpose of surgical, medical, dental, or veterinary.
12% Enzymes and prepared enzymes 
12% Spectacle lenses and corrective spectacles 
12% Drugs and medicines used personally
12% Surgical or medical examination rubber gloves 
12% Gas masks and breathing appliances.it doesn’t include the protective masks that don’t consist of the replaceable filters and mechanical parts. 
12% Photographic plates and films for the x-rays for medical use 
12% Antisera and modified immunological products and blood fractions 
12% Medical grade hydrogen peroxide, and medical grade oxygen
12% Diabetic food 
12% Test strips and glucometer (it is a monitoring system for glucose in blood) 
12% Appliances and instruments used for the medical, surgical, dental, or veterinary sciences. For example, scintigraphic apparatus, electro-medical apparatus, and sight-testing instruments. 

 

Tax Rate  Medicine and Medical Goods 
18% Hygienic or pharmaceuticals articles including ice bags, teats, hot water bottles and more
18% Razor and its blades 
18% Furniture helpful in surgical, dental, medical, or veterinary treatments including operating tables, examination tables, hospital beds, and more. It also includes furniture with mechanical fittings such as a dentist’s chair etc. 
18% Products used in oral or transdermal application or the applications otherwise comprises nicotine and especially used to treat tobacco use cessation. 
18% Psychrometers, barometers, infrared thermometers, and hygrometers. 
18% Preparation for dental hygiene and floss, solid in individual retail packages. 
18% Organic surface-active products and preparing the skin wash, regardless of whether it contains the soap or not. 

 

Tax Rate  Medicine and Medical Goods 
28% No pharmaceutical products or medicines is taxed at 28% tax slab rate 

 

GST Implications for Small Businesses in the Food and Beverage Industry

Before directly understanding the implications of GST, we should have a look at the pre-GST scenarios in the food and beverage industry. Restaurants used to impose various types of taxes on the food value. It typically includes the VAT, Service Tax, or Service Charge. 

  • VAT (Value Added Tax): The tax used to be charged over the food portion of the bill.

  • Service Tax: It was a pre-decided charge by the government for the services provided by restaurants and hotels.

  • Service Charge: Firstly, this is not any type of tax but a charge generally imposed by restaurants and hotels to the customers. It is an extra income for the businesses to collect from the consumers. 

It was a mess for the businesses to manage various types of taxes and hire separate professionals for them. GST has been implemented to remove multiple taxes and streamline them into a unified tax system. This heavy change has come up with various types of positive and negative changes for small businesses.

In the pre-GST era, small businesses had to bear various tax liabilities at every stage of the supply chain, which increased the overall tax liabilities for the businesses. Now, GST makes sure that taxes should be imposed on businesses only when a value addition occurs. It will allow the companies to have a simplified tax structure and reduce their overall tax burden. Hence, it allows the business to have more straightforward tax systems and focus on its business expansion. 

However, GST has various regulations that include strict record keeping, timely returns filing, and many others. In fact, this new taxation system has a great involvement in utilizing the technology in the accounting and invoicing system. It would require small businesses to invest more in smart software and other resources after the GST implications of foods and beverages have been divided upon the different tax slabs that we have mentioned in the next section.   

New GST Rules for Restaurants  

As per new rules, restaurants have to fall under either a 5% GST rate (with no ITC allowed) or an 18% GST rate (with ITC allowed). The GST rates vary based on various factors, including location and more. Below, we have specifically mentioned all the GST rules for restaurants and hotels. 

GST Rates on Restaurant Service  GST Rate 
Standalone restaurants, including takeaway  5% (No ITC included)
Standalone outdoor catering services or food delivery services  5% (No ITC included)
Normal/Composite outdoor catering within hotels 

(Room Tariff < Rs. 7,500)

5% (No ITC included)
Food supply or catering service by Indian Railways/IRCTC 5% (No ITC included)
Restaurant within hotels

(Room Tariff < Rs. 7,500)

5% (No ITC included)
Normal/Composite outdoor catering within hotels* 

(Room Tariff ≥ Rs. 7,500)

18% (ITC included)
Restaurants within hotels*

(Room Tariff ≥ Rs. 7,500)

18% (ITC included)

 

GST Rates on Food Items  GST Rate 
GST over frozen vegetables  NIL
GST over dried leguminous vegetables that are not pre-packed and labeled  NIL
GST over fruits such as pears, apples, bananas, berries, citrus fruits, mangoes, grapes, etc. NIL
GST over chilled and/or fresh vegetables  NIL
GST over pasteurized milk (excluded UHT milk), fresh milk, and milk and cream (not concentrated nor consists of sugar and sweeteners) NIL
GST over buttermilk, curd, and lassi that are not pre-labelled and pre-packed NIL
GST over bird’s eggs in shells  NIL
GST over chilled or fresh meat and fish  NIL
GST over rice that are not pre-packed and labeled  NIL
GST over rye that are not pre-packed and labeled NIL
GST over wheat and meslin (maize flour) that are not pre-packed or labeled  NIL
GST over dried vegetables, packed and labeled 5%
GST over dried leguminous vegetables, pre-packed and labeled 5%
GST over milk and cream, concentrated or consists of added sugar or sweeteners  5%
GST over yogurt and cream, regardless of containing the sugar/flavor or not  5%
GST over buttermilk, curd, and lassi, pre-labelled and pre-packed 5%
GST over packed and labeled meat  5%
GST over bird’s egg which are not in shell  5%
GST over pre-packed or labeled rice  5%
GST over pre-packed or labeled wheat or meslin  5%
GST over pre-packed or labeled rye 5%
GST over pre-packed or labeled cereal flours (excluding wheaten, or meslin, rye, etc.) 5%
GST over fruits, nuts, vegetables, and edible plant parts (preserved using sugar) 12%
GST over fruits, nuts, and edible plant parts (preserves and/or using vinegar and/or acetic acid) 12%
GST over chocolates and food preparations consisted of cocoa 18%

GST Implications for Small Businesses in the IT and Software Industry

The IT and software industry comprises millions of employees and is a significant contributor to India’s GDP. Goods and Services Tax (GST) has impacted the whole industry and its related business with positive and negative outcomes. In the previous tax regime, businesses had to pay different taxes, including excise duty, service tax, VAT, etc. Whenever a company sells software, they have to bear three different types of taxes. 

GST has levied 18% straight taxes over any transaction in the IT and Software sector. It has resulted in increased administrative and infrastructure costs for all types of businesses. At the same time, companies also get the benefits if they avail ITC to reduce the overall cost at some point. Below, we have mentioned the exact impact seen over the MSMEs of the GST. 

1. Simplify the Taxation System 

In the pre-GST era, companies and businesses used to pay 5% VAT, 15% service tax, and various uneven customs charges and excise duties. The GST implementation has simplified the entire tax structure, as it consists of a list of goods and services clearly mentioned under the tax slab.

Items GST Rates
Hard Drives 18%
Pen Drives  18%
Desktop PC  18%
Laptop  18%
Optical Drives  18%
RAM and Memory Chips  18%
Monitors LED/LCD (up to 32 inches) 18%
Monitors LED/LCD (more than 32 inches) 28%
Laptop Adapter  28%


However, the retailers are also allowed to claim for the ITC (Input Tax Credit) over the taxes paid by the buyers. For example, if a retail business owner has purchased a product at Rs.110 (GST included), then he can sell it for Rs.160. Here, you can suppose the customer is paying the taxes of Rs.15, so the business owner can pay Rs.10 and only need to pay Rs.5 to the government. In this way, they can cut out a lot of expenses. Let’s understand it more thoroughly in the next point. 

2. Avail ITC 

When the business faces higher infrastructure and overhead costs, it can claim the ITC benefits under GST compliance. As per the old regimes, the businesses (paying output VAT) were unable to claim the service tax paid on the Annual Maintenance Services (AMCs) over the company’s computers and software. However, GST allows them to claim for the ITC here. Let’s understand it thoroughly through a table. 

Particulars  Before GST After GST 
Sale of Juice  10,000 10,000
GST@12% 1450
VAT@14.5% 1200
AMC Contract  1000 1000
Input Tax on AMC
Service Tax@15% 150
GST@18% 180
Total Tax Outflow  {1450+150}

1600

1020

3. Redesigning Business Software 

Most of the IT and Software businesses use the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning ) software. Now, the entire software has to be updated with the new GST rules and compliances. In the redesigning process, the business owners have to deal with the complexities of the GST. Moreover, businesses can also adopt a whole new software, totally following the new tax regime. 

4. E-Commerce Businesses 

GST on the IT sector makes the ecommerce business owners pay taxes no matter what their yearly turnover. It will reduce the profit margins of small businesses even during the initial phase, instead of the fact that profit margins are already very low in the initial period. Moreover, GST has directly increased the administrative and management costs for e-commerce businesses. However, it also allows smaller e-commerce businesses to claim the ITC. 

5. Compliance and Multi-factor Taxation

In the previous tax regime, a single administration controlled the IT services with a single point of taxation, that is, central service tax. However, the GST model has 111 points of taxation, as the service centers of the IT sector are present all across the country, and each requires registration in 37 jurisdictions of 29 states, 7 union territories, and 1 central region. Plus, the IT manufacturers and customers also have to pay 3 more indirect taxes. Therefore, these 111 points of registration have made it extremely difficult for the local business based upon Information Technology to maintain their business. 

GST Implications for Small Businesses in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry

India comprises one of the largest tourism and hospitality sectors, worth $15.2 billion in 2023. It is amongst the fastest-growing business sectors in India that has been widely impacted by the introduction of the GST regime in the country in both a positive and negative manner. Before the implementation of GST, the Tourism and Hospitality industry also had to pay various taxes, including luxury tax, VAT, and service tax. 

For instance, a hotel room (whose tariff room exceeds Rs.1000) used to charge a 15% service tax. Here, you can get the 40% abatement over the tariff value that brings down the service tax effectively to 9%. Moreover, the VAT (between 12-14.5%) and luxury tax will also apply and increase the overall tax liabilities. Similarly, restaurants get the 60% abatement, which makes the effective 6% service tax, along with the VAT. However, services like social gatherings such as business seminars and weddings used to get only 30% abatement. Therefore, the cascading effect has immensely increased the overall cost in the hospitality sector. Moreover, the ITC was also not allowed.

The GST has widely changed the entire scenario of the hospitality industry by moving it toward a standard and uniform tax structure. In fact, small and medium businesses are also able to claim for the ITC (Input Tax Credit). The best part is that the implementation of GST has decreased the final cost for the customers, which has increased the business opportunities for the MSMEs in this sector. It has also increased the revenues for the governments. 

GST Rates for Hotels Based On Room Tariff (Up to 30th September 2019)

Tariff Per Night  GST Rate 
< Rs.1000 No Tax 
Rs.1000 to Rs.2,499.99 12%
Rs.2,500 to Rs,7,499.99 18%
= or > Rs.7,500 28%
Applicable GST Rates for Hotel Industry

GST Rates for Hotels Based On Room Tariff (With Effect from 1st October)

Tariff Per Night  GST Rate 
< Rs.1000 No Tax 
Rs.1001 to Rs.7,500 12%
= or > Rs.7,501 18%
Applicable GST Rates for Hotel Industry

Positive Impact of GST on Tourism and Hospitality Industry:

  • Ease the Administrative Processes: GST has abolished various other types of taxes that result in fewer procedural steps and streamlined the simple taxation process.

  • Improved Service Quality: You would have also waited on the couch for a considerable time in the hotel at the time of checkout because your bill was being prepared. GST has included the use of technological software to get the required bill instantly while imposing the required taxes on it. Thus, it has increased the speed and, eventually, the service quality of the businesses.

  • Avail Input Tax Credit: The Tourism and Hospitality industry will also be able to take the benefit of input tax credit. The new GST regime has enabled businesses to claim it by adjusting the taxes paid for input against the output.

  • Simplified procedure: GST was mainly imposed by the government to simplify the entire taxation process. It doesn’t consist of maintaining multiple taxes at a time. Instead, it has subsumed all the taxes and makes the tax returns easy to file.

  • Increased Domestic Tourism: The GST implementation has directly increased domestic tourism, as it has increased the taxes on foreign trips. 

Negative Impact of GST on Tourism and Hospitality Industry:

  • Increased Tax Rates: Under the new GST regime, the tax rate for rooms with a tariff of Rs.7500 and more is 28%. The tax rate for rooms with a tariff less than Rs.7500 is only 18%. However, previously it was only 15%. This means the rates have been increased after the implementation of GST.

  • Impact Tour Operators: GST has negatively impacted the business of tour operators in this Industry. In the previous tax system, they had to pay a single tax for transportation, accommodation, and food, but now they have to pay different taxes for each service.

  • Require More Reduction: The Indian government still needs to reduce their taxes on the tourism and hospitality industry, as it resists a lot of tourists visiting the country and eventually a loss for small businesses, as they don’t even have resources to offer additional discounts to attract customers.

  • Increased technological burden: Though GST has very clear and cohesive guidelines, they all require a technological investment from businesses. Therefore, small businesses have to bear the technological burden.

GST Implications for Small Businesses in the Education and Healthcare Industry

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) has drastically made a significant impact on the small and medium businesses operating in the Education and Healthcare industry. In the education industry, small businesses, including coaching centers, have to bear with various rules and regulations of GST. Though it has eliminated different types of taxes and streamlined the taxation system to a single tax system, it has also increased the complexities for small businesses in terms of GST filing, invoicing, and compliance. 

Many types of education services are exempted from GST, while certain exceptions are here, such as coaching centers for competitive exams. Thus, education businesses have to be more careful while choosing their Industry, as it can either lead them to tax exemptions or tax liabilities. Here, the classification becomes a little challenging, especially for small businesses. 

Similarly, healthcare industries have also widely impacted the implementation of GST in India. Small businesses such as md3idal clinics, diagnostic center, etc., has to deal with various compliances of GST. Previously, the healthcare sector was completely exempt from the service tax. After the GST, businesses have to classify their business more accurately to get determined for any applicable taxes. 

Moreover, the goods and services procurement in this Industry will also subject the business to bear the GST. It might include buying medical equipment and study materials. Therefore, it is even more crucial for small businesses to claim input tax credits and follow all the guidelines of GST; otherwise, you would have to face legal penalties or punishments. Though GST has been implemented to unify the Indian taxation system, it has simultaneously brought various challenges for them as well. In simple words, the implementation of GST has brought a learning curve for all businesses. 

Gist of Taxability and Exemptions Under GST on Education Services 

Heading Service Description GST Rate (with extra relevant information)
9992 Education Services  Total 18% GST [9% CSGT + 9% SGST]

(Notification no. 11/2017 – Central Tax rate dated June-28 2017)

9992 Services provided by: 

(a) An educational institution to its staff, faculty, and students;

(aa) An educational institution relating to the conduct of entrance examination against the consideration in the form of fees for entrance. 

Services provided to- 

(b) An educational institution by way of – 

(i) Transportation of students, staff, and faculty;

(ii) Catering (It includes the mid-may meals scheme sponsored through the State/Central Government or Union Territory);

(iii) Housekeeping / Cleaning / Security performed in the educational institutions;

(iv) Services related to admission to or conduct of examination by such institution; 

(v) Supply of educational periodicals or journals 

(Notice – The above entry also covers two proviso as covered wide notification no. 12/2017 – Central Tax Rate dated June-28 2017)

NIL (Notification no. 12/2017 – Central Tax Rate dated June-28 2017)
9992 Services provided (based upon Central Government guidelines) by the IIM, following the required educational programs (except the Executive Development Program) –

Post Graduate Programs in Management (Full-time for 2 years) for the post of Graduate Diploma in Management, where the CAT (Common Admission Test) is required for the admission, conducted by the IIM; 

5-Year integrated programme in Management;

Fellow programme in Management 

NIL (Notification no. 12/2017 – Central Tax Rate dated June-28 2017)

Healthcare Services Classification Under GST With SAC Code 

Heading No.9993 SAC Description of Services  CGST Rate  IGST Rate IGST Rate
Group No. 99931 999311 Inpatient Services 9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99931 999312 Dental and Medical Services  9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99931 999313 Childbirth and related service  9% 9% 9%
Group No. 99931 999314 Physiotherapeutic and Nursing Services   9% 9% 9%
Group No. 99931 999315 Ambulance Services  9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99931 999316 Diagnostic and Medical Laboratory Services  9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99931 999317 Imaging Services  9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99931 999319 Organ, blood, sperm, and bank services, and other human health related services in the Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Unani, Naturopathy, Acupuncture, and more 9% 9%
Group No. 99932 999321 Residential care services for elders and disabled  9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99932 999322 Residential healthcare services (not related to hospitals)

Residential care services for elders and diabetic patients 

9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99933 999331 Residential care services for children suffering through mental health illness, mental retardation, or any such related 9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99933 999332 Other social services (consisted of accommodation for children) 9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99933 999333 Residential care services for adult suffering through mental health illness, mental retardation, or any such related  9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99933 999334 Other social services (consisted of accommodation for adults) 9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99934 999341 Vocational rehabilitation services  9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99934 999349 Other social services (without any accommodation for elderly and disabled). It is not classified anywhere else. 9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99935 999351 Day-care service for child 9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99935 999352 Counseling and guidance services (no where else classified related to children) 9% 9% 18%
Group No. 99935 999359 Welfare and Other Social services without accommodation (no where else classified) 9% 9% 18%

Wrapping Up !! 

In all the business industries, GST has eliminated the cascading effect. Instead, it has to lead the country to a more simplified and unified taxation system. Though certain industries are paying more taxes now, they have very simple and quick ways of tax filing, invoicing, etc. In simple words, GST is going to make India utilize its technological powers to ease tax filing. We hope this guide helps you thoroughly understand the GST implications on each industry specifically. 

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Prarabdh Gupta

Prarabdh Gupta is a finance content writer with 4+ Years of Industry experience in simplifying complex finance terms. He crafts captivating and engaging content around mutual funds, insurance, banking, real estate, taxation, and financial planning. He has completed his graduation from Jiwaji University, Gwalior.

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