Examples of Inclusions in the Valuation of Goods and Services

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Published Date:  29-12-2023   Author:   kiruthika-as
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Navigating the complicated landscape of the goods and services tax (GST) requires understanding the elements that go into valuing commodities and services. Regarding GST, inclusions are essential since they represent the components of a supply’s taxable value.

These inclusions go more profound than the transactional level and examine what constitutes the entire value for taxation purposes. The GST system must carefully review inclusions, from tangible costs to intangible factors, to guarantee an accurate and transparent evaluation.

Table of Contents

Goods and Services Valuation Illustrations

Understanding the components of a product’s total value is necessary to illustrate how commodities and services are valued. The following illustrations show the essential elements impacting the valuation process:

Valuation of Goods and Services at Transaction Value

The value of a thing or service is established by the price that has been paid or must be paid in situations when the supplier and the customer are unrelated. The transaction value will be accepted even when there is a connection between the supply source and the recipient, provided the connection hasn’t altered the pricing.

The value of a supply is the transaction value when items are moved from one location of business to another inside the same company. It can also be from the principal to an agent or from an agency to the principal, regardless of whether the locations are in the same state.

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The table below will define what is included and excluded in the above situation:

Inclusions Exclusions
Taxes, fees, cess, or duties charged separately by the supplier, besides GST Any given discount is not to be included in the value of the supply:

  • Before or at the time of supply, given that the invoice specifically mentions this discount
  • upon the implementation of the supply, provided that
    • This discount is determined by a contract signed at the time of supply or earlier, specifically associated with the relevant invoices.
    • The recipient of the supply has reversed the input tax credit, attributing it to the discount based on the document provided by the supplier.
Incidental expenses like packaging and commission charges charged by the supplier
The sum charged for any work completed by the supplier either before or at the time the goods or services are delivered, such as special or gift packaging
Late fee, interest and penalty for delayed payment
Direct price-related subsidies, excluding those given by the central and state governments

Also Read: What Is The Difference Between Inclusive And Exclusive Tax Computation?

Valuation Components Examples

Section 9 of the CGST Act 2017 provides the charge basis. This clause states that the taxable supply of goods and services, as defined by clause 15, will be the foundation for the GST’s imposition. The provisions regarding the Value of Taxable Supply are found in section 15. An outline of these provisions is provided below.

Section 15(1)  Transaction value is the value of the supply
Section 15(2) Inclusions to be added to the value of the supply
Section 15(3) Discount will not be included
Section 15(4) Rule 27 to Rule 31 will be applied when Section 15 (1) is not applicable. 
Section 15(5) Regarding Notified Goods/Services (Rule 32)

Examples of how the same is calculated:

  • 1st Example Where Municipal and Other Taxes are Applicable

Let’s assume the products have a list price of around Rs. 40,000 (taxes not included). The municipal government imposes a tax of Rs. 2000. The commodities are subject to an 18% CGST/SGST tax.

Given that the value encompasses all taxes and charges (apart from GST), the Value of Supply will be Rs. 42,000. Therefore, 18% of approximately Rs. 42,000, which will be Rs. 7,560, will be the GST due.

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  • 2nd Example Where Payment is Made on Behalf of the Supplier

Imagine a construction project where the contractor controls the supply of materials and the rendering of building services. Occasionally, the contractor will request that the client pay the supplier directly for the raw materials needed. In this instance, the client is paying the contractor for the designated items on the contractor’s behalf.

So, if the client pays Rs. 10,000 to the contractor for construction services and an additional Rs. 5000 to the supplier, the GST calculation will be Rs. 15,000.

Also Read: The Importance Of Accurate Valuation Of New Products And Services For GST Purposes

Practical Examples of Valuation Inclusions

Let us look at some practical cases and understand their explanations and solutions.

  • Example 1 – Transaction Between Companies Where Directors Are Common

Assume that Mr. X and Mr. Y are directors of two corporations, A and B. They hold 20% of the shares in each of these companies. Company “A” deals with Company “B” to supply items. 

Will section 15(1) ‘s transaction value be used for valuation? In this instance, section 15’s explanation considers these entities to be related parties.

Solution – Company A and B are connected parties because X and Y are both businesses’ joint directors.

  • Example 2 – When Transaction Happens Between Partners of the Firm

Mr. “A” owns a 15% share as a partner in Fun Unlimited. Will any supply between Mr. “A” and Fun Unlimited be considered a supply between related parties?

Solution – According to the explanation for Section 15, a person’s ownership of 25% or more of the entity’s shares is required for control to be regarded to exist. Control is absent since there is just 15% equity in the instance above. However, the firm and Mr. A are connected entities because he is a duly acknowledged partner in Fun Unlimited.

  • Example 3 – Transaction between a proprietorship and a partnership in which the son owns the proprietorship and the father is a partner in the partnership

Anuj has a 30% stake as a partner in XYZ Co. Suraj, his son, is the owner of ABC Co. Will a supply between XYZ and ABC be considered a transaction between related parties? Are they both believed to be part of the same family?

Solution – Since the son is a close relative, he can be considered a family member. As a result, ABC and XYZ are linked parties.

Illustrative Cases of Inclusion in Valuation

Here are some illustrative cases of how inclusions in valuation are calculated under the GST Act.

  • When Taxable Amount is Not Just Money

Suppose an old phone is traded for a new one for Rs. 20,000. The new phone costs Rs. 25,000 without exchange. In this instance, the GST charge will apply to Rs. 25,000.

Similarly, the recipient makes the barter printer when a laptop is provided for Rs. 40000. If the worth is known to be Rs. 4000 at delivery time. Still, the open market value is unknown; the value of the laptop supply will be Rs. 44000.

  • When the Value of Supply of Goods is Made or Received Through an Agent

If a principal provides rice to his agent, and on the day of supply, the agent charges Rs. 5000/-per quintal for rice of like kind and quality. The same agent also receives rice of a similar type and quality from an additional independent supplier for Rs. 4550 per quintal.

The principal’s contribution will be Rs. 4550/-per quintal or Rs. 4500/-per quintal if he exercises his option, which is 90% of the Rs. 5000/-amount.

  • When Value of Services is in the Case of a Pure Agent

The legal work related to Company B is being handled by Firm A. In addition to its service costs, A also receives from B the approval and registration fees for the company name that were paid to the Registrar of the Companies. Therefore, B must pay the costs assessed by the company’s Registrar for both name approval and registration.

Meanwhile, A is just paying those fees as a pure agent. As a result, A’s reimbursement for these costs is a payout rather than a component of the supply value that A provided to B.

Real-World Scenarios of Valuation Components

Examples of valuation components under GST in real-world settings offer valuable insights into how companies handle the challenges of figuring out transaction value. Here are a few instances:

  • When the Transaction Value Cannot be Based on MRP

A Delhi-based audit firm takes up an audit job for a Gurgaon-based customer. The contract said the client would give a cab, maybe costing Rs 5000, and audit fees of Rs 100,000 would be paid.

Therefore, the client has to pay for this audit of Rs. 105000 (which includes both audit costs and the expenditure of Rs. 5000 related to the cab).

  • When the Transaction Value has Other Taxes and Charges

Let’s assume a person rents a property for Rs. 1,00,000 under a contract, and the tenant must pay Rs. 10,000 to the local government as tax separately. The GST will be applied on Rs. 1,10,000 in such a case.

  • For the Amount that the Supplier is Required to Pay

Suppose Amit, the buyer, has placed an order with Sham, the supplier, for a product packed in a carton. According to the contract terms, Sham must deliver the goods to Amit’s location. After that, Sham employs a transporter to move the merchandise. According to the truck receipt, Amit, the recipient of the goods, is responsible for paying the freight.

Sham was obligated to pay the transporter because he brought the products to Amit’s location. Here, Amit is making the payment in place of Sham. As a result, this payment will be included in the transaction value of the products when Sham supplies the goods to Amit.


To sum up, the examples of inclusions in the valuation of commodities and services highlight how complex it can be to ascertain transaction value in different situations. Every scenario, whether a car dealership, software subscription service, building project, international transaction, restaurant providing a deal, retailer giving discounts, or real estate transaction, illustrates the thorough methodology needed for precise Goods and Services Tax (GST) computations.

To ensure transparency and compliance in their valuation methods, firms seeking to manage the intricacies of GST legislation must acknowledge and effectively include these varied components. Understanding these real-life examples is crucial to gaining accuracy and integrity in assessing goods and services for tax purposes in the ever-changing business world.

Also Read: Understanding Inclusions in GST Valuation: A Comprehensive Guide


  • How vital is comprehending inclusions in the goods and services valuation to comply with the Goods and Services Tax (GST)?

To navigate the complexity of products and Services Tax (GST) and ensure accurate and transparent evaluations for tax purposes, it is imperative to comprehend the components contained in the valuation of products and services.

  • What variables determine the transaction value in the valuation of goods and services?

Examined is the transaction value, which serves as the foundation for applying GST, highlighting elements that impact the total worth of a supply, including taxes, fees, and other inclusions.

  • Can you give examples of what gets included and excluded when valuing goods and services for GST purposes?

The publication provides a comprehensive knowledge of the precise inclusions (like taxes and fees) and exclusions (like specific discounts) in valuing goods and services under the Goods and Services Tax.

  • What are the essential elements of the taxable supply value included in Section 15 of the CGST Act 2017?

Section 15 is broken down throughout the document, discussing transaction value, inclusions, exclusions, and rules that apply when transaction value is irrelevant.

  • How are real-world examples—like partnerships with ownership stakes or transactions between companies with joint directors—used to demonstrate value inclusions?

The application of valuation principles is clarified by presenting realistic scenarios and providing insight into ownership thresholds and related party transactions.

  • Could you provide further details on examples of inclusions in the GST Act’s valuation of goods and services?

Practical insights are supplied by discussing real-world instances, which include barter transactions, transactions including agents, and services rendered as pure agents.

  • When the Maximum Retail Price (MRP) cannot determine the transaction value, how does the valuation of goods and services apply?

The document discusses an audit job scenario, focusing on transaction value determination in situations when MRP is not relevant.

  • In what circumstances are other taxes and fees included in the value of the supply, and how is GST computed in these circumstances?

Instances, when extra taxes and fees are included in the value of the supply and affect the total GST calculation, are demonstrated by the examples given.

  • To maintain compliance with GST legislation, why must businesses comprehend and integrate these diverse components into their valuation methods?

The conclusion highlights how crucial it is to recognize and incorporate various components in valuation methodologies to guarantee transparency, compliance, and accuracy in GST computations.

  • In what ways can real-world examples—like goods payments and property rentals—illustrate the difficulties in establishing transaction value for GST purposes?

The difficulties in assessing transaction value are brought to light through instances, highlighting the complications that firms encounter in various contexts.

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Kiruthika AS

Kiruthika is passionate about writing and keen on writing articles related to tax, accounting, audit, and other finance-related topics. She has authored numerous articles, from personal finance and investing for ETmoney, Equirius, and ABSL health insurance. She enjoys staying up-to-date with the latest financial world developments and exploring new investment opportunities.

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